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             LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED

01. AiU    AitareyoPanishad 2 verses

02. AVG  Ashtavakra Gita 1      

03. AV     Atharvaveda 7

04. BP      Bhagavata MahaPurana 39

05. BrU    BrihadaranyakoPanishad 11

06. BS      BrahmaSutra 9

07. ChU   ChandogyoPanishad 7

08. DB      Devi Bhagavatam 4

09. IsU     IshavasyoPanishad 2

10. KaU   KathoPanishad 15

11. KeU   KenoPanishad 2

12. MaU  MandukyoPanishad 1

13. MB     Mahabharata 57

14. MS     Manu Smriti 10

15. MuU  MundakoPanishad 11

16. NBS   Narada BhaktiSutra 1

17. PrU    PrashhnoPanishad 1

18. PYS    Patanjali YogaSutra 8

19. RV     Rigveda 21

20. SBS    Shandilya BhaktiSutra 3

21. ShU    ShvetashvataroPanishad 4

22. SV      Samaveda 1

23. TaU    TaittiriyoPanishad 2

24. TR      Tulasi Ramayan 29

25. VC      Vivekachudamani 5

26. VP      Vishnu Purana 6

27. VR     Valmiki Ramayanam 6

28. YV     Yajurveda, Vajasaneyi Samhita 4

29. YVa   YogaVashishtha 3/ 275

 

 

          CONTENTS

1. ARJUNA’S DILEMMA  

Introduction Of The Army Commanders

War Starts With The Blowing Of Conch Shells

Arjuna Wants To Inspect The Army

Arjuna's Dilemmaxii

Arjuna Describes The Evils Of Warxiv

When The Going Gets Tough, Tough Gets Deludedxv

 

2. TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE

Arjuna Continues His Reasoning Against The War

Teachings Of Gita Begin With Knowledge Of The Self

The Self Is Eternal, Body Is Transitory

Death And Transmigration Of The Soul

The Indestructible Spirit Transcends Mind And Speech

Lord Krishna Reminds Arjuna Of The Duty Of A Warrior

The Science Of Karma-Yoga, The SelflessService

The Vedas Deal With Both Material And Spiritual Aspects Of Life

Theory And Practice Of KarmaYoga

Marks Of A Self-Realized Person

Dangers Of Unrestrained Senses

Attainment Of Peace And Happiness Through Sense Control, Knowledge

 

3. PATH OF SELFLESS SERVICE

Why One Should Serve Others?

To Help Each Other Is The First Commandment Of The Creator

Leaders Should Set An Example

What Should The Wise Do To The Ignorant?

All Works Are The Works Of Nature

Two Major Stumbling Blocks On The Path Of Perfection

Lust Is The Origin Of Sin

How To Control Lust And Reach The Goal

 

4. PATH  OF RENUNCIATION WITH KNOWLEDGE

Karma-Yoga Is An Ancient Forgotten Commandment

The Purpose Of Incarnation Of God

Path Of Worship And Prayer

Division Of Labor Is Based On Aptitude Of People

Attached, Detached, And Forbidden Action

A Karma-Yogi Is Not Subject To The Karmic Laws

Different Types Of Spiritual Practices Or Sacrifices

A Superior Spiritual Practice

Transcendental Knowledge Is Automatically Revealed To A Karma-Yogi

Both Transcendental Knowledge. lx And Karma-Yoga Are Needed.

 

5. PATH OF RENUNCIATION  

Both Paths Lead To The Supreme

A Transcendentalist Does Not Consider Oneself As The Doer

A Karma-Yogi Works For God

The Path Of Knowledge

Additional Marks Of An Enlightened Person

Third Path¾ The Path Of Devotional Meditation And Contemplation

 

6. PATH OF MEDITATION 

A Karma-Yogi Is A Renunciant

A Definition Of Yoga

Mind Is The Best Friend As Well As The Worst Enemy

Techniques Of Meditation

Who Is A Yogi?

Two Methods To Subdue The Restless Mind

Destination Of Unsuccessful Yogi

Who Is The Best Yogi?

 

7. SELF-KNOWLEDGE AND ENLIGHTENMENT  lxxxi

Metaphysical Knowledge Is The Ultimate Knowledge

Seekers Are Very Few

Definition Of Spirit And Matter

Supreme Spirit Is The Basis Of Everything

How To Overcome The Delusive Divine Power (Maya)

Who Seeks God?

Worship Of Deity Is Also Worship Of God

God Can Be Seen In Any Desired Form Of Worship

 

8. THE ETERNAL BEING

Definition Of Supreme Spirit, Spirit

Theory Of Reincarnation And Karma

A Simple Method Of God Realization

Attain Salvation By Meditating On God At The Time Of Death

The Creation Is Cyclic

Two Basic Paths Of Departure From The World

Knowledge Leads To Salvation

 

9. SUPREME KNOWLEDGE AND THE BIG MYSTERY

Knowledge Of The Nature Of The Supreme Is The Biggest Mystery

Theory Of Evolution And Involution

The Ways Of The Wise And Of The Ignorant Are Different

Everything Is A Manifestation Of The Absolute

Attain Salvation By Devotional Love

Lord Accepts And Eats Offering Of Love And Devotion

There Is No Unforgivable Sinner

Path Of Devotional Love Is Easier

 

10. MANIFESTATION OF THE ABSOLUTE

God Is The Origin Of Everything

Lord Gives Knowledge To His Devotees

Nobody Can Know The Real Nature Of Reality

Everything Is A Manifestation Of The Absolute

A Brief Description Of Divine Manifestations

Manifest Creation Is A Very Small Fraction Of The Absolute

 

11. VISION OF THE COSMIC FORM

Vision Of God Is The Ultimate Aim Of A Seeker

Lord Shows His Cosmiccxx Form To Arjuna

One May Not Be Prepared To See The Lord

Arjuna Is Frightened To See The Cosmic Form

Lord Describes His Powers

Arjuna’s Prayers To The Cosmic Form

One May See God In Any Form Of One's Choice

Lord Shows Arjuna His Four-Armed And The Human Form

Lord Can Be Seen By Devotional Love

 

12. PATH OF DEVOTION

Should One Worship A Personal Or An Impersonal God?

Reasons For Worshipping A Personal Form Of God

Four Paths To God

Karma-Yoga Is The Easiest Way To Start With

The Attributes Of A Devotee

One Should Sincerely Strive To Develop Divine Qualities

Is There Only One Right Way To God?

 

13. CREATION AND THE CREATOR

Theory Of Creation

The Fourfold Noble Truth As  Means Of Nirvana

The Supreme Can Be Described By. cxlii Parables, Not In Any Other Way

Supreme Spirit, Spirit, Material Nature, cxliv And The Individual Souls

Faith And Devotion Can Also Lead To Nirvana

Attributes Of The Spirit (Brahma)

 

14. THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE

All Beings Are Born From The Union Of Spirit And Matter

How Three Modes Of Material Nature Bind Soul To The Body

Characteristics Of Three Modes Of Nature

Three Modes Are Also The Vehicles Of Transmigration

Attain Nirvana After Transcending Three Modes Of Material Nature

The Process Of Rising Above The Three Modes

Bonds Of Three Modes Can Be Cut By Devotional Love

 

15. THE SUPREME BEING   clv

Creation Is Like A Tree Created By The Powers Of Maya

How To Cut This Tree Of Life And Attain Salvation By Surrendering to God

The Embodied Soul Is The Enjoyer                                      

Spirit Is The Essence Of Everything

Supreme Spirit, Spirit And The Individual Soul

 

16. DIVINE AND THE DEMONIC QUALITIES

Major Divine Qualities That Should Be Cultivated For Salvation

Demonic Qualities That Should Be Given Up

There Are Only Two Types Of Human Beings¾Wise And The Ignorant

Suffering Is The Destiny Of The Ignorant

Lust, Anger, And Greed Are The Three Gates To Hell

One Must Follow The Scriptural Injunctions

 

17. THREEFOLD FAITH

Three Types Of Faith

Three Types Of Food

Three Types Of Sacrifices

Austerity Of Thought, Word,  And Deed

Three Types Of Austerity

Three Types Of Charity

Threefold Aspect Of God

 

18. NIRVANA THROUGH RENUNCIATION   clxxvii

Definition Of Renunciation And Sacrifice

Three Types Of Sacrifice

Five Causes Of Any Action

Three Types Of Knowledge

Three Types Of Action

Three Types Of People

Three Types Of Intellect

Three Types Of Resolve, Four Goals Of Life

Three Types Of Pleasure

Division Of Labor Is Based On One’s Ability

Attainment Of Salvation Through Duty, Discipline, Devotion

Karmic Bondage And The Free Will

We Become The Puppets Of Our Own Freewill

Path Of Surrender Is The Ultimate Path To God

The Highest Service To God,  And The Best Charity

Grace Of The Gita

Both Transcendental Knowledge And Action Are Needed

     =============================================

   हिन्दी में गीता के ७००श्लोक             संस्कृत में गीता के ७०० श्लोक

(All 700 Gita Verses in Hindi)       (In Easy to Read Format !)

 

*******************GITA BEGINS*******************

श्री हनुमते नमः

अथ श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता

अथ प्रथमोधयायः

CHAPTER 1

अर्जुनविषादयोगः

ARJUNA’S DILEMMA

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच,

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्ष्रेत्रे, समवेतायुयुत्स्वः ।

मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव, किम् अकुर्वत संजय ॥१॥

 

धृतराष्ट्र बोले-  हे संजय, धर्मभूमि कुरुक्षेत्र मे एकत्र हुए  युद्ध के इच्छुक मेरे और पाण्डु के पुत्रों ने क्या क्या किय ?

The King inquired: Sanjaya, please, now tell me in detail, what did my people (the Kauravas) and the Pandavas do in the battlefield before the war started? (1.01)

संजय उवाच

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं, व्यूढं दुर्योधन् तदा ।

आचार्यम् उपसंगम्य, राजा वचनम् अब्रवीत् ॥२॥

 

संजय बोले  - पाण्डवों की सेना की व्यूह-रचना देख्कर राजा दुरोधन ने द्रोणाचार्य के पास जाकर कहा । (१,२)

Sanjaya said: O King, after seeing the battle formation of the Pandava’s army, your son approached his guru and spoke these words: (1.02)

पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणां, आचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।

व्यूढां द्रुपद् पुत्रेण, तव शिष्येन धीमता ॥३॥

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा, भीमार्जुन समायुधि ।

युयुधानो विराटश्च् , द्रुपदश्च महारथाः ॥४॥

धृष्टकेतुश् चेकितानः, काशीराजश्च वीर्यवान् ।

पुरुजित् कुन्तिभोजश्च, शैब्यश्च नरपुङवः ॥५॥

युधामन्युश्चविक्रान्तः, उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।

सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयश्च, सर्वएव महारथाः ॥६॥

 

हे आचाय्र, आप्के बुद्दिमान शिष्य धुष्टध्युम्न द्वारा व्यूहकार खडी की गयी पाण्डुपुत्रॊंकी इस महान सेना को देखिये ।

इस सेना में महा धनुर्धारी योद्धा है , जो युद्ध मे भीम और अर्जुन के समान है, जैसे युयुधान, विराट तथा महारथी राजा द्रुपद, धृष्टकेतु, चेकितान, बलवान काशीराज, पुरुजित, कुन्तिभोज और द्रुपद के पुत्रों, ये सब महारथी है ।

O Master, behold this mighty army of the Pandavas, arranged in battle formation by your other talented disciple! There are many great warriors, valiant men, heroes, and mighty archers. (1.03-06)

INTRODUCTION OF THE ARMY COMMANDERS

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये, तान् निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।

नायका मम सैन्यस्य, संज्ञार्थ तान् ब्रवीमि ते ॥७॥

भवान् भीष्मश्च, कृपश्च समितिंजयः ।

आश्वत्थामा विकर्ण्श्च, सौमदत्तिस् तथैव च ॥८॥

अन्येच बहवः शूरा, मदार्थे त्यक्तजीविताः 

नाना शस्त्र प्रहरणाः, सर्वे युद्ध विषारदाः ॥९॥

 

हे द्विजोत्तम, हमारे पक्ष में भी जो वरिष्ठ योद्धगण है, उन्को भी आप जान लीजिये, आपकी जान्कारी के लिये मै अपनी सेन के नायकों के नाम बताता हूं (१, ७)

एक तो स्व्यं आप, भीष्म, कर्ण और विजयी कृपाचार्य तथा अश्वत्थामा , विकर्ण और सोमदत्त का पुत्र है. मेरे लिये प्राण्त्याग कर्ने के लिये तैयार, अनेक प्रकार के शस्त्रों से सुसज्जित तथा युद्धमे कुशल और भि अनेक शूरवीर है (१,७-९)

Also there are many heroes on my side who have risked their lives for me. I shall name a few distinguished commanders of my army for your information. He named all the officers of his army and said: They are armed with various weapons and are skilled in warfare. (1.07-09)

अपर्याप्तं तद् अस्माकं, बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।

पर्याप्तं त्विदं एतएषां, बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम् ॥१०॥

अयनेषु च सर्वेषु, यथाभागम् अवस्थिताः ।

भीष्मम् एवाभिरक्षन्तु, भवतः सर्वएव हि ॥११॥

 

भीष्मपितामह द्वारा रक्षित हमारी सेना अपरिमित है, और भीम द्वारा रक्षित उन्की सेना परिमित है. विभिन्न मोर्चों पर अप्ने अप्ने स्थान पर स्थित रहते हुए आप सब लोग भीष्मपितामह की सब ओर से रक्षा करें ।(१,१०-११)

The army protecting our commander-in-chief is insufficient, whereas my archrival on the other side is well protected. Therefore all of you, occupying your respective positions, protect our commander-in-chief. (1.10-11)

 

WAR STARTS WITH THE BLOWING OF CONCH SHELLS

तस्य संजयन् हर्ष, कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।

सिंहनादं विनोद्योच्चैः, शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् ॥१२॥

 

उस समय कौरवों में वृद्ध, प्रतापी भीष्मपितामह ने दुर्योधन के मन हर्ष उत्पन्न करते हुए उच्च स्वर से गरज कर शंखध्वनि की. (१.१२)

The mighty commander-in-chief and the eldest man of the dynasty, roared as a lion and blew his conch loudly, bringing joy to your son. (1.12)

ततः शंखाश्च भेर्यश्च, पणवानकगोमुखाः ।

सहसैवाऽभ्यहन्यन्त, स शब्दस् तुमुलोऽभवत् ॥१३॥

 

तत्पश्चात शंख, नगाडे, डोल, शृंगी आदि वाद्य एक साथ हि बज उठे, जिनका भयंकर नाद हुआ (१,१३)

Soon after that, conches, kettledrums, cymbals, drums, and trumpets were sounded together. The commotion was tremendous. (1.13)

ततः श्वेतैर हयैर युक्ते, महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।

माधवः पाण्डवाश्चैव, दिव्यौ शङ्‍खौ प्रदध्मतुः ॥१४॥

 

इस्के उपशान्त शेत अश्वों से युक्त भव्यरथ मे बैठे हुये श्रीक्रुष्ण और पाडुपुत्र अर्जुन अपने अपने दिव्य शंख बजाये ।(१.१४)

After that, Lord Krishna and Arjuna, seated in a grand chariot yoked with white horses, blew their celestial conches. (1.14)

पाञ्चजन्यम् हृषीकेशो, देवदत्तं धनंझयः ।

पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं, भीमकर्म वृकोदरः ॥१५॥

अनन्त विजयं राजा, कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।

नकुलः सहदेवश्च, सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ ॥१६॥

 

काश्यश्च परमेश्वासः, शिखण्डी च महारथः ।

धुष्टध्युमनो विराटश्च, सात्यकिश्चापराजितः ॥१७॥

द्रुपदो द्रौपदेययश्च, सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।

सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः, शङ्खान् दध्मुः पृथक् पृथक् ॥१८॥

सघोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां, हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।

नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव, तुमुलो व्यनुदारयन् ॥१९॥

 

भगवान कृष्णने पाञ्चजन्य, अर्जुन ने देवदत्त तथा भयंकर कर्म करनेवाले भीम ने पौन्ड्र नामक महाशङ्ख बजाये (१.१५)

हे राजन, कुंतीपुत्र रज युधिष्ठिर ने अनन्त विजय नामक शङ्ख , नकुल तथ सहदेव ने क्रमशः सुघोष और मणिपुष्पक नामक शङ्ख बजाये. श्रेष्ठ धनुषवाले काशीराज, महारथि शिखंडि, धृष्टध्युम्न, राजा सात्यकि, राजा विराट , अजेय सात्यकि राजा द्रुपद, द्रौपदी के पुत्र और महबाहु अभिमन्यु ने अलग अलग शंख बजाये. (१.१५-१९)

वह भयंकर घोष आकाश और पृथ्वी पर गूंजने लगा और उस्ने आप्के पुत्रों के हृदय विदीर्ण कर दिये. (१.१६)

Krishna blew His conch; then Arjuna and all other commanders of various divisions of the army of Pandavas blew their respective conches. The tumultuous uproar, resounding through the earth and sky, tore the hearts of your sons. (1.15-19)

ARJUNA WANTS TO INSPECT THE ARMY AGAINST WHOM HE IS ABOUT TO FIGHT

अथ व्यवस्थितान् दृष्ट्वा, धार्तराष्ट्रान् कपिध्वजः ।

प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते, धनुर् उद्यम्य पाङ्डवः ॥२०॥

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यम्, इदम् आह महीपते ।

सेनयोर् उभयोर् मध्ये, रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत ॥२१॥

यावद् एतान् निरीक्षेऽहं, यो द्धुकामान् अवस्थितान् ।

कैर मया सह योद्धव्यम्, अस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे ॥२२॥

हे राजन, इस प्रकार जब युद्ध प्रारम्भ होनेवाला ही था कि कपिध्वज अर्जुन ने ध्रुतराष्ट्र के पुत्रो को स्थित देखकर धनुश उठाकर भगवान कृष्ण से ये शब्द कहे हे अच्युत, मेरे रथ को दोनो सेनाओं के मध्य खडा कीजिये, जिससे मैं युद्ध की इच्छा से खडे उन लोगों का निरीक्षण  कर सकूं जिन्के साथ मुझे युद्ध कर्ना है. (१.२०-२२)

Seeing your sons standing and the war about to begin with the hurling of weapons, Arjuna took up his bow and spoke these words to Lord Krishna: O Lord, please stop my chariot be­tween the two armies until I behold those who stand here eager for the bat­tle and with whom I must engage in this act of war. (1.20-22)

योत्स्यमानान् अवेक्षेऽहं, य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।

धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्, युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः ॥२३॥

 

दुर्बुद्धि दुर्योधन का युद्ध में प्रिय चाहने वाले जो राजा लोग यहां एकत्र है, उन युद्ध करने वालों को मैं देखना चाहता हूं (१.२३)

I wish to see those who are willing to serve and appease the evil-minded Kauravas by assembling here to fight the battle. (1.23)

संजय उवाच

एवं  उक्तो हृषीकेशो, गुडाकेशेन भारत ।

सेनयोर् उभयोर् मधे, स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम् ॥२४॥

भीष्मद्रॊनप्रमुखतः, सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।

उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्, समवेतान् कुरुन् इति ॥२५॥

 

संजय बोले ---हे भारत, अर्जुन के इस प्रकार केहने पर भगवान कृष्ण ने उत्तम रथ के दोनो सेनाओं के सामने खडा कर्के कहा--  हे पार्थ यहं एकत्र हुए इन कौरवों को देखो. (१.२४-२५)

 

Sanjaya said: O King, Lord Krishna, as requested by Arjuna, placed the best of all the chariots in the midst of the two armies facing Arjuna's grandfather, his guru and all other Kings, and said to Arjuna: Behold these assembled soldiers! (1.24-25)

 

तत्र अपश्यत् स्थितान् पार्थः,  पितृन् अथ पितामहान् ।

आचार्यान् मातुलान् भ्रातॄन्, पुत्रान् पौत्रान् सखींस् तथा ॥२६॥

 

वहां अर्जुन ने अपने चाचाओं, पितामहों, आचार्यों, मामाओं भाइयों, पुत्रों, पौत्रों और मित्रों को खडे हुए देखा (१.२६)

Arjuna saw his uncles, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, and other comrades in the army. (1.26)

ARJUNA'S DILEMMA

श्वशुरान सुहृदश्चैव, सेनयोर् उभयओरपि ।

तान् समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेय, सर्वान् बन्धून् अवस्थितान् ॥२८॥

कृपया परयाविष्टो, विषीदन् इदम् अब्रवीत् ।

दृष्टद्वेमं स्वजन् कृष्ण, युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम् ॥२९॥

सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि, मुखं च परिशुष्यति ।

वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे, रोमहर्षश्च जायते ॥३०॥

 

श्वशुरों, मित्रों और सब बन्धुओं को भी उन दोनों सेनाओं मे स्थित देखकर कुन्तीपुत्र अर्जुन का मन करुणा से भर गया और विषाद युक्त होकर उस्ने यह कहा  हे कृष्ण, युद्ध की इच्छा से उपस्थित इन स्वजनॊं को देखकर मेरे अंग शिथिल हुए जाते है, मुख भी सूः रहा है और मेरे सरीर मे कम्पन तथा रोमांच हो रहा है. (१. २७-२९)

 

After seeing fathers-in-law, companions, and all his kinsmen standing in the ranks of the two armies, Arjuna was overcome with great compassion and sorrowfully spoke these words: O Krishna, seeing my kinsmen standing with a desire to fight, my limbs fail and my mouth becomes dry. My body quivers and my hairs stand on end. (1.27-29)

गाण्डीवं संश्र्ते हस्तात्, त्वक् चैव परिदह्यते ।

न च शक्नोप्य अवस्थातुं, भ्रमतीव च मे मनः ॥३०॥

 

मेरे हाथ से गाण्डीव धनुष गिर रहा है , त्वचा जल रही है. मेरा मन भ्रमित सा हो रहाहै, तथा मैं खडा रहने भी असमर्थ हूं और हे केशव मैं शकुनॊं को भी विपरीत ही देख रहा हूं । युद्ध में अपने स्वजनों को मार कर कोई कल्याण भी नहीं देख्ता हूं ।

The bow slips from my hand and my skin intensely burns. My head turns, I am unable to stand steady, and O Krishna, I see bad omens. I see no use of killing my kinsmen in battle. (1.30-31)

नकाङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण, न च राज्यं सखानि च ।

किं नो राज्येन गोविंद, किं भोगैर् जीवितेन वा ॥३२॥

येषाम् अर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो, राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ।

त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे, प्राणास् त्य्क्त्वा धनानि च ॥३३॥

 

हे कृष्ण, मैं न विजय चाहता हूं. और  न राज्य तथा न सुखों को ही हे गोविन्दा, हमें ऎसे राज्य से अथवा भोगें से, और जीनेसे भी क्या लाभ है ? क्योंकि वे सब लोग, जिन्के लिये राज्य, भॊग सुखकी इच्छा है, धन और जीवन्की आषा त्यागकर युद्ध के लिये खडे हैं (१.३२-३३)

I desire neither victory nor pleasure nor kingdom, O Krishna. What is the use of the kingdom or enjoyment or even life, O Krishna; because all those ¾ for whom we desire kingdom, enjoyments, and pleasures ¾ are standing here for the battle, giving up their lives? (1.32-33)

आचार्यः पितरः पुत्रास्, तथैव च पितामहाः ।

मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः, श्यालाः संबन्धिनस् तथा ॥३४॥

एतान् न हन्तुम् इच्छामि, ध्न्तोपि मधुसूदन ।

अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य, हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ॥३५॥

 

हे मधुसूदन कृष्ण, गुरुजन, ताऊवों, चाचावों, पुत्रों, पितमहों, मामाओं, श्वशुरों, पोतों, सालों तथा अन्य संबन्धियों को, मुझपर प्रहार करने पर भी, मैं मारना नहिं चाहता. तीनों लोक के राज्य के लिये भी मैं इन्हें मारने नही चाहता, फिर पृथ्वी के राज्य की तो बात ही क्या है ।

I do not wish to kill my teachers, uncles, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives who are about to kill us, even for the sov­ereignty of the three worlds, let alone for this earthly kingdom, O Krishna. (1.34-35)

निहत्य धार्त्तराष्ट्रान् नः, का प्रीतिः स्याज् जनार्धन ।

पापम् एवाश्रयेद् अस्मान्, हत्वैतान् आततायिनः ॥३६॥

 

हे मधुसूदन कृष्ण, धृतराष्ट्र के पुत्रों को मारकर हमें क्या प्रसन्नता होगि?इन आततायियों को मारने से तो हमें केवल पापही लगेगा. (१.३६)

O Lord Krishna, what pleasure shall we find in killing our cousin brothers? Upon killing these felons, we shall incur only sin. (1.36)

तस्मान् नार्हा वयं ह्ंतुम,  धार्तराष्ट्रान् स्वबान्धवान् ।

स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा, सुखिनः स्याम् माधव ॥३७॥

इस्लिये अपने बान्धवों, धृतराष्ट्र के पुत्रों को मारना हमारे लिये उपयुक्त नहीं है, क्योंकि ,हे माधव, स्वजनों को मारकर हम कैसे सुखी होंगे? (१.३७)

Therefore, we should not kill our cousin brothers. How can we be happy after killing our relatives, O Krishna? (1.37)

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति, लोभोपहतचेतसः ।

कलक्षयकृतं दोषं, मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ॥३८॥

कथं न ज्ञॆयम् अस्माभिः, पापाद् अस्मान् निवर्तितुं ।

कुलक्ष्य कृतं दोषं, प्रपश्यद्भिर् जनार्दन ॥३९॥

 

यद्यापि लोभ से भ्रष्टचित्त हुए ये लोग अपने कुल के नाश से उत्पन्न दोष को और मित्रों से विरोध कर्ने में हुए पाप को नहीं देख रहें है.  परन्तु ,हे जनार्दन, कुल के नाश से उत्पन्न दोष को जानने वाले हम लोगों को इस पाप से निवृत्त होने के लिये क्यों नहिं सोचना चाहिये? (१.३८-39)

 

Though they are blinded by greed and do not see evil in the destruction of the family or sin in being treacherous to friends, why should not we, who clearly see evil in the destruction of the family, think about turning away from this sin, O Krishna? (1.38-39)

 

ARJUNA DESCRIBES THE EVILS OF WAR

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति, कुलधर्माः सनातनाः ।

धर्म नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नम्, अधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ॥४०॥

 

कुल के नाश से कुल के सनातन धर्म नष्ट हो जाते हैं, धर्म के नष्ट होने पर सारे कुल को पाप दबा लेता है (१.४०)

Eternal family traditions and codes of moral conduct are destroyed with the destruction of (the head of the) family in a war. And immorality prevails in the family due to the destruction of family traditions. (1.40)

अधर्माभिभत् कृष्ण, प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्तियः ।

स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय, जायते वर्णसंकरः ॥४१॥

 

हे कृष्ण पाप के बढ्जाने से कुल की स्त्रीयां दूषित हो जाती हैं और हे वार्णेय, स्त्रीयों के दूषित होने पर वर्णसंकर पैदा होता है (१.४१)

And when immorality prevails, O Krishna, people be­come corrupted. And when people are corrupted, unwanted progeny are born. (1.41)

संकरो नरकायैव, कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।

पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां, जायते वर्ण संकरः ॥४२॥

 

वर्ण संकर कुलघातियों को और सारे कुल को नरक में ले जाता है, क्योंकि ( वर्णसंकर द्वारा) श्राद्ध और तर्पण न मिलने से पितर भी अप्ने स्थान से नीचे गिर जाते हैं (१.४२)

This brings the family and the slayers of the family to hell because the spirits of their ancestors are degraded when deprived of ceremonial of­ferings of love and respect by the unwanted progeny. (1.42)

दोषैर् एतैः कुलघ्नानां, वर्णसंकरकारकैः ।

उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः, कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ॥४३॥

 

इन वर्णसंकर पैदा कर्ने वाले दोषों से कुलघातियों के सनातन कुलधर्म और जातिधर्म नष्ट हो जाते हैं (१.४३)

The everlasting qualities of social order and family traditions of those who destroy their family are ruined by the sinful act of illegitimacy. (1.43)

उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां, मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ।

नरकोऽनियतं वासो, भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ॥४४॥

हे जनार्दन, हमने सुना है कि जिन्के कुलधर्म नष्ट हो जाते है, उन्हे बहुत समय तक नरक में वास करना होता है .(१.४४)

 

We have been told, O Krishna, that people whose family traditions are destroyed necessarily dwell in hell for a long time. (1.44)

अहो बत महत् पापं, कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयं ।

यद् राज्यसुखलोभेन, हन्तु स्वजनम् उद्यताः ॥४५॥

यह बडे शोक की बात है कि हम लोग बडा भारी पाप करने का निश्चय कर र्बैठे है तथा राज्य और सुख के लोभ से अप्ने स्वजनो का नाश करने तैयार हैं (१.४५)

Alas! We are ready to commit a great sin by striving to slay our relatives because of greed for the pleasures of the kingdom. (1.45)

यदि माम् अप्रतीकारम्, अशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ।

धृतराष्ट्रा  रणे हन्युस्, तन् मे क्षॆमतरम् भवेत् ॥४६॥

मेरे लिये अधिक कल्याण्कारी होग यदि मुझ शस्त्ररहित और सामना न करनेवाले को ये शस्त्रधारि कौरव रण में मार डालें (१.४६)

It would be far better for me if my cousin brothers kill me with their weapons in battle while I am unarmed and unresisting. (1.46)

WHEN THE GOING GETS TOUGH, EVEN TOUGH ONES CAN GET DELUDED

संजय उवाच

एवम् उक्त्वाऽर्जुनः संख्ये, रथोपस्थ उपविशत् ।

विसृज्य सशरं चापं, शोकसंविग्नमानसः ॥४७॥

संजय बोले  ऎसा कहकर शोकाकुल मन वाला अर्जुन रणभूमि में बाणसहित धनुष का त्याग करके रथ के पीछले भाग में बैठ गया. (१.४७)

Sanjaya said: Having said this in the battlefield and casting aside his bow and arrow, Arjuna sat down on the seat of the chariot with his mind overwhelmed with sorrow. (1.47)

 

 

CHAPTER 2

संख्यायोगः

TRANSCENDENTAL KNOWLEDGE

संजय उवाच

तं तथा कृपयाविष्टम्, अश्र्य्पूर्णाकुलेक्षणम् ।

विषीदन्तम् इदं वाक्यम्, उवाच मधुसूदनः ॥१॥

 

संजय बोले – इअ तरह करुणा से व्याप्त आसूं भरे, व्याकुल नेत्रोंवाले, शोकयुक्त अर्जुन से भगवान श्रीकृष्ण ने कहा. (२.१)

Sanjaya said: Lord Krishna spoke these words to Arjuna whose eyes were tearful and downcast and who was overwhelmed with compas­sion and despair. (2.01)

श्रीभगवानुवाच

कुतस्त्वा कश्मलम् इदम्, विषमे समुपस्थितं ।

अनारयजुष्टम् अस्वर्ग्यम् अकीर्तिकरम् अर्जुन ॥२॥

 

श्रीभगवान बोले – अर्जुन, इस विषम अवसर पर तुम्हें यह कायतरा कैसे हुई? यह श्रेष्ठ मनुष्यों के आचरण के विपरीत है । तथा यह न तो स्वर्ग प्राप्ति का साधन है और न कीर्ति देनेवाला ही है .(२.२)

Lord Krishna said: How has the dejection come to you at this juncture? This is not fit for a person of noble mind and deeds. It is disgraceful, and it does not lead one to heaven, O Arjuna. (2.02)

 

कलैब्यं मा स्म गम पार्थ, नैतत् त्वय्य् उपपद्यते ।

क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं, व्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परंतप ॥२.३॥

 

इसलिये हे अर्जुन, तुम कारर मत बनो. यह तुम्हें शोभा नहिं देता. हे शत्रुओं को मारनेवाले अर्जुन. तुम अपने मन की इस दुर्बलता को त्याग्कर युद्ध करो (२.३)

 

Do not become a coward, O Arjuna, because it does not befit you. Shake off this trivial weakness of your heart and get up for the battle, O Arjuna. (2.03)

ARJUNA CONTINUES HIS REASONING AGAINST THE WAR

अर्जुन उवाच

कथं भीष्मम् अहं संख्ये द्रोणं च मधुसूदन ।

इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि पूजार्हाव् अरिसूदन ॥४॥

 

अर्जुन बोले – हे मधुसूदन, मैं इस रणभूमि में भीष्म और द्रोण विरुद्ध बाणों से कैसे युद्ध करूं? हे अरिसूदन, वे दोनों ही पूजनीय हैं (२.४)

Arjuna said: How shall I strike my grandfather, my guru, and all other relatives ¾ who are worthy of my respect ¾ with arrows in battle, O Krishna? (2.04)

            Arjuna had a valid point. In Vedic culture, gurus, the elderly, honorable personalities, and all other superiors are to be respected. One should not fight or even joke or speak sarcastically with  superiors, even if they hurt you. But the scriptures also say that anyone who is engaged in abominable activities or supports misdeeds against you or others, is no longer to be respected, but punished.

 

गुरून् अहत्वा हि हि महानुभावान्

श्रेयो भोक्तुं भैक्श्यम् अपीह लोके ।

हत्वार्थकामांस् तु गुरून् इहैव

भुञ्जीय भोगान् रुधिरप्रदिग्धान् ॥५॥

 

इन महानुभाव गुरुजनों को मारने से अच्छा इस लोक में भिक्षा का अन्न खाना है, क्योंकि गुरुजनों को मारकर तो इस लोक में उन्के रक्त से सने हुए अर्थ और कामरूपी भोग कोही तो भोगूंगा (२.०५)

It would be better, indeed, to live on alms in this world than to slay these noble personalities because by killing them I would enjoy wealth and pleasures stained with their blood. (2.05)

न चैतद् विद्यः कतरन् नो गरीयो

यद् वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः ।

यान् एव हत्वा न जिजीविषामस्

तेऽवास्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्तराष्ट्राः ॥६॥

और हम यह भी नहीं जानते कि हम लोगोंके लिये (युद्ध करना या न करना, इन दोनों में) कौनसा अच्छा है, अथवा यह भी नहीं जानते कि हम जीतेंगे या वे जीतेंगे. जिन्हें मारकर हम जीनाभी नहीं चाहते, वे ही धृतराष्ट्र के पुत्र हमारे सामने खडे हैं. (२.६)

We do not know which alternative ¾ to fight or to quit ¾ is better for us. Further, we do not know whether we will conquer them or they will con­quer us. We should not even wish to live after killing our cousin brothers who are standing in front of us. (2.06)

            Arjuna was unable to decide what to do. It is said that expert guidance of a guru, the spiritual counselor, should be sought during a moment of cri­sis or to overcome the perplexities of life. Arjuna now requests Krishna for guidance.

कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्व्भावः

पृच्छामि त्वां धर्मसंमूढचेताः ।

यच्छ्रेयः स्यान् निश्चितं ब्रूहि तन् मे

शिष्यस् तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नं ॥७॥

 

इस्लिये करुण्पूर्ण और कर्तव्य पथ से भ्रमित, मैं, आप्से पूछता हूं कि मेरे लिये जो निश्चयही कल्याणकारी हो उसे आप कृपया कहिए. मैं आपका शिष्य हूं, शरणमें आये मुझको आप शिक्षा दीजिए (२.७)

My senses are overcome by the weakness of pity, and my mind is con­fused about duty (Dharma). Please tell me what is bet­ter for me. I am Your disciple, and I take refuge in You. (2.07)

            NOTE: 'Dharma' may be defined as the eternal law govern­ing, upholding, and supporting creation and the world order. It is the eternal relationship between the creator and His creatures. It also means way of life, doctrine, principle, prescribed duty, righteousness, right action, integrity, ideal conduct, custom, virtue, na­ture, essential quality, commandments, moral principles, spiritual truth, spirituality, spiritual values, and a function within the scriptural injunction or religion.

न हि प्रपश्यामि ममापनुद्याद्

यच्छोकम् य्च्छोषणम् इन्द्रियाणाम् ।

अवाप्य भूमाव् असपत्नम् ऋद्धं

राज्यं सुराणम् अपि चाधिपत्यं ॥८॥

 

पृथवी पर निष्कण्टक समृद्ध राज्य तथा देवताओं का स्वामित्व प्राप्त्कर भी मैं ऎसा कुछ देखता हुं जिससे हमारे इन्द्रियों को सुखानेवाला शोक दूर हो सकें (२.८)

I do not perceive that gaining an unrivaled and prosperous kingdom on this earth, or even lordship over all the celestial controllers, will remove the sorrow that is drying up my senses. (2.08)

संजय उवाच

एवं उक्त्वा हृषीकेशं गुडाकेशः परंतप ।

न योत्स्य इति गोविन्दम् उक्त्वा तूष्णीं बभूव ह ॥९॥

 

संजय बोले – हे राजन, निद्रा के जीतनेवाले, अर्जुन, अन्त्रयामी श्रीकृष्ण भगवान से “मैं युद्ध नहीं करूंगा” कहकर चुप होगया. (२.९)

Sanjaya said: O King, after speaking like this to Lord Krishna, the mighty Arjuna said to Krishna: I shall not fight, and became silent. (2.09)

तम् उवाच हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्न् इव भारत ।

सेनयोर् उभयोर् मध्ये, विषीदन्तम् इदं वचः॥१०॥

 

हे भरत्वंशी (धृतराष्ट्र ) दोनों सेनओं के बीच में उस शोकयुक्त अर्जुन को अन्तर्यामी श्रीकृष्ण हंसते हुए से ये वचन बोले.(२.१०)

O King, Lord Krishna, as if smiling, spoke these words to the distressed Arjuna in the midst of the two armies. (2.10)

THE TEACHINGS OF THE GITA BEGIN WITH THE TRUE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SELF

अशोच्यान् अन्वशोचस् त्वं प्रज्ञावादांश्च भाषसे ।

गतासून् अगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः ॥११॥

 

श्रीभगवान बोले- हे अर्जुन, तुम ज्ञानियों की तरह बातें करते हो, लेकिन जिन्के लिए शोक नहीं करना चाहिए, उनके लिए शोक करते हो, ज्ञानी मृत या जीवित के लिए भी शोक नहीं करते. (२.११)

 

Lord Krishna said: You grieve for those who are not worthy of grief and yet speak words of wisdom. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead. (2.11)

            People meet and depart in this world as two pieces of wood flowing down the river come together and then separate from each other (MB 12.174.15). The wise, who know that the body is mor­tal and the Spirit is immortal, have nothing to moan about (KaU 2.22).

            NOTE: The Self (or Atma) is also called soul or consciousness and is the source of life and the cosmic power behind the body-mind complex. Just as our body exists in space, similarly, our thoughts, in­tellect, emotions, and psyche exist in the Self, the space of conscious­ness. Self cannot be perceived by our physical senses because Self is beyond the domain of the senses. The senses were designed only to comprehend physical objects.

            The word ‘Atma’ has been also used in the ‘Gita’ for the lower self (body, mind, and senses), psyche, intellect, soul, spirit, subtle senses, oneself, ego, heart, human beings, Eternal Being (Brahma), Absolute Truth, individual soul, and the supersoul or the supreme Self, depending on the context.

न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं, न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः ।

न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयम् अतः परं ॥१२॥

 

ऎसा नहींहै कि मैं किसी समय नहीं था, अथवा तुम नहीं थे, या ये राजा लोग नहीं थे, और न ऎसा ही है कि इससे आगे हम सब नहीं रहेंगे (२.१२)

There was never a time when these monarchs, you, or I did not exist, nor shall we ever cease to exist in the future. (2.12)

देहिनोऽस्मिन् यथा देहे, कौमारं यौवनं जरा ।

तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर् धीरस् तत्र न मुह्यति ॥१३॥

 

**जैसे इसी जीवन में जीवात्मा बाल,युवा और वृद्ध शरीर प्राप्त कर्ता है, वैसे ही जीवात्मा मृत्यु के बाद दूसरा शरीर प्राप्त करता है. इस्लिए धीर मनुष्य को मृत्यु से घबराना नहीं चाहिए (२.१३)

Just as the soul acquires a childhood body, a youth body, and an old-age body during this life, similarly, the soul acquires another body after death. This should not delude the wise. (See also 15.08) (2.13)

देहिनोऽस्मिन् यथा देहे, कौमारं यौवनं जरा ।

तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर् धीरस् तत्र न मुह्यति ॥१३॥

 

**जैसे इसी जीवन में जीवात्मा बाल,युवा और वृद्ध शरीर प्राप्त कर्ता है, वैसे ही जीवात्मा मृत्यु के बाद दूसरा शरीर प्राप्त करता है. इस्लिए धीर मनुष्य को मृत्यु से घबराना नहीं चाहिए (२.१३)

The contacts of the senses with sense objects give rise to the feel­ings of heat and cold, and pain and pleasure. They are transitory and impermanent. Therefore, one should learn to endure them bravely. (2.14)

यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्‌षभ ।

समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते॥१५॥

हे पुरुष्श्रेष्ठ, दुःख और सुख में समान भाव से रेहनेवाले जिस धीर मनुष्य को इन्द्रियों के विषय व्याकुल नहीं कर पाते, वह मोक्ष का अधिकारी होता है (२.१५)

Because a calm person ¾ who is not afflicted by these sense objects and is steady in pain and pleasure ¾ becomes fit for salvation. (2.15)

            Nothing can hurt one if the mind can be trained to with­stand the impulse of the pairs of opposites ¾ joys and sorrows, pains and pleasures, loss and gain. The phenomenal world cannot exist without the pairs of opposites. Good and evil, pain and pleasure will always exist. The universe is a playground designed by God for the living entities. It takes two to play a game. The game cannot continue if the pairs of opposites are altogether elimi­nated. Before one can feel joy, one must know sorrow. Both negative and positive experiences are needed for our growth and spiritual development. Cessation of pain brings pleasure, and cessation of pleas­ure results in pain. Thus, pain is born in the womb of pleasure. Peace is born in the womb of war. Sorrow exists because the desire for hap­pi­ness exists. When the desire for happiness disappears, so does the sorrow. Sorrow is only a prelude to happiness and vice versa. Even the joy of going to heaven is followed by the sorrow of coming back to the earth; therefore, worldly objects should not be the main goal of human life. If one chooses material pleasures, it is like giving up nectar and choos­ing poison instead.

            Change is the law of nature— change from sum­mer to winter, from spring to fall, from the light of the full moon to the darkness of the new moon. Neither pain nor pleasure last forever. Pleasure comes after pain, and pain is followed again by pleasure. Reflecting like this, one must learn to tolerate the blows of time with patience and learn not only to endure, but also to expect, welcome, and enjoy both the joys as well as the sorrows of life. Sow the seed of hope in the soil of sorrow. Find your way in the darkness of the night of ad­versity with the torch of the scriptures and faith in God. There would be no opportunities if there were no problems. Destiny is born out of crisis. Einstein said: Opportunity lies in the middle of difficulties.

THE SELF IS ETERNAL, BODY IS TRANSITORY

नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः ।

उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तस् त्व् अनयोस् तत्वदर्शिभिः ॥१६॥

 

असत वस्तु का अस्तित्व नहीं होता और सत का अस्तित्व होताहै. तत्वदर्शी मनुष्य (असत और सत ) दोनों को तत्व से जानते हैं (२.१६)

There is no existence of the unreal or Asat and no nonexistence of the real or Sat. The reality of these two is indeed certainly seen by the seers of the Truth. (2.16)

            The Self exists everywhere and at all times — past, present, and future. The human body and the universe both have a temporary existence, but appear permanent at first sight. Webster defines Atman or Atma as the 'World Soul', from which all souls derive and the Supreme Abode to which they return. Atma is also called ‘Jivatma’ or ‘Jiva’, which is the ultimate source of all individual selves. We have used the English words: Self, Spirit, spirit, soul, or individual soul interchangeably for different aspects of Atma.

            Our physical body is subject to birth, growth, maturity, reproduction, decay, and death; whereas the Self is eternal, indestructible, pure, unique, all knower, substratum, unchangeable, self-luminous, the cause of all causes, all pervading, unaffectable, immutable, and inexplicable. The material body or the world is unreal and transitory; it undergoes changes, and the soul is real or  eternal.

अविनाशि तु तद् विद्धि येन सर्वम् इदम् ततस् ।

विनाशम् अव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित् कर्तुम् अर्हसि ॥१७॥

 

उस अविनाशी तत्व, आत्मा को जानो जिससे यह जग सारा जगत व्याप्त है, इस अविनाशी का नाश करने में कोई भी समर्थ नहीं है (२.१७)

The Spirit, by whom this entire universe is pervaded, is indestructible. No one can destroy the imperishable Spirit. (2.17)

अन्तवन्त इमे देहा, नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः ।

अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य, तस्माद् युद्धस्य भारत ॥१८॥

 

इस् अविनाशी, असीम और नित्य जीवात्मा के ये सब शरीर नाशवान कहे गये हैं, इसलिये हे भरतवंशी अर्जुन, तुम युद्ध करो. (२.१८)

The physical bodies of the eternal, immutable, and incomprehensible Spirit are mortal. Spirit (Atma) is immortal. Therefore, as a warrior, you must fight, O Arjuna. (2.18)

य एनं वोत्ति हन्तारं, यश्चैनं मन्यते हतम् 

उभौ तौ न विजानीतो, नायं हन्ति न हन्यते ॥१९॥

 

**जो इस् आत्मा को मारनेवाला या मरनेवाला मानते हैं, वे दोनों नासमझ् हैं, क्योंकि आत्मा न किसी को मारता है और् न किसी के द्वारा मारा जा सकता है.(२.१९)

One who thinks that the Spirit is a slayer, and one who thinks the Spirit is slain are both ignorant because the Spirit neither slays nor is slain. (2.19)

न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचिन् नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः ।

अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं  हन्यमाने पुराणो न हन्यते शरीरे ॥२०॥

**आत्मा कभी न जन्म लेता है और न मरता है. आत्मा का होना फिर न होना नहीं होता है, आत्मा अजन्मा, नित्य, शाश्वत और पुरातन है. शरीर के नाश होने पर इसका नाश नहीं होता (२.२०)

The Spirit is neither born, nor does it die at any time. It does not come into being nor cease to exist. It is unborn, eternal, permanent, and pri­me­val. The Spirit is not destroyed when the body is destroyed. (2.20)

 

वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनम् अजम् अव्ययं ।

कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ, कं घातयति हन्ति कं ॥२१॥

 

हे पार्थ, जो मनुष्य आत्मा को अविनाशी, नित्य, जन्मरहित और अव्यय जानता है, वह कैसे किसको मरवायेगा और कैसे किसको मारेगा ? (२.२१)

O Arjuna, how can a person, who knows that the Spirit is indestructi­ble, eternal, unborn, and immutable, kill anyone or cause anyone to be killed? (2.21)

DEATH AND TRANSMIGRATION OF SOUL

वासन्ति जीर्णानि यथा विहाय  गृह्णति नरोऽपराणि

तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णान्य अन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही ॥२२॥

 

** जैसे मनुष्य अप्ने पुराने वस्त्रों को उतारकर दूसरा धारण करता है, वैसे ही जीव अपने पुराने शरीर को त्यागकर दूसरा नया शरीर प्राप्त करता है (२.२२)

Just as a person puts on new garments after discarding the old ones, similarly, the living entity or the individual soul acquires other new bodies after casting away the old bodies. (2.22)

            Just as a caterpillar takes hold of another object be­fore leaving an object, similarly, the living entity (or soul) obtains a new body before or after leav­ing the old one (BrU 4.4.03). The physical body has also been com­pared to a cage, a vehicle, an abode, as well as a garment of the sub­tle body that needs to be changed frequently. Death is the separa­tion of the subtle body from the physical body. The living entity is a traveler. Death is not the end of the jour­ney of the living entity. Death is like a rest area where the individual soul changes vehicles and the journey continues. Life is continuous and endless. Inevitable death is not the end of life; it is only an end of a perishable, physical body.

नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।

न चैनंक्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मरुतः ॥२३॥

अच्छेद्योऽयम् अदाह्योऽयं अक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च ।

नित्यः सर्वगतः स्थाणुर् अचलोऽयं सनातनः ॥२

 

शस्त्र इस आत्मा को काट नहीं सकते, अग्नि इसको जला नहीं सकती, जल इसको गीला नही सकता और वारु इसे सुखा नहॊं सकती, क्योंकि आत्ना अछेद्य, अदाह्य, अक्लोद्य और अशेष्य है, आत्मा नित्य, सर्वगत, स्थिर, अचल और सनातन है.(२.२३-२४)

Weapons do not cut this Spirit, fire does not burn it, water does not make it wet, and the wind does not make it dry. The Spirit cannot be cut, burned, wet, or dried. It is eternal, all-pervading, changeless, immovable, and primeval. (Atma is beyond space and time.) (2.23-24)

अव्यक्तोऽयम् अचिन्त्योऽयम् अविकार्योऽयम् उच्यते ।

तस्माद् एवं विदित्वैनं नानुशोचितुम् अर्हसि ॥२५॥

 

यह आत्मा अव्यक्त, अचिन्त्य और निर्विकार कहा जाता है. अतः आत्मा को ऎसा जान्कर तुम्हे शोक नहीं करना चाहिए (२.२५)

The Spirit is said to be unexplainable, incomprehensible, and immutable. Knowing the Spirit as such, you should not grieve for the physical body. (2.25)

            In the previous verses Krishna asked us not to worry about the indestructible spirit. A question may arise: Should one lament the death of (the destructible body of) our near and dear ones at all? The answer comes:

अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतं ।

तथापि त्वं महाबाहो नैवं शोचितुम् अर्हसि ॥२६॥

जातस्य हि धृवो मृत्युर् धृवं जन्म मृतस्य च ।

तस्माद् अपरिहार्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितम् अर्हसि ॥२७॥

 

हे महाबहो, यदि तुम शरीर (में रहेनेवाला जीवात्मा ) को नित्य पैदा होने वाला तथा मरनेवाला भी मानो, तो भी तुम्हें शोक नहीं करना चाहिए. क्योंकि जन्म लेनेवालाकी मृत्यु निश्चित है , और मरने वाले का जन्म नोश्चित है. अतः जो अटल है उसके विषय में तुम्हे शोक नहीं करना चाहिए (२.२६-२७)

Even if you think that the physical body takes birth and dies perpetually, even then, O Arjuna, you should not grieve like this because death is certain for one who is born, and birth is certain for one who dies. Therefore, you should not lament over the inevi­table death. (2.26-27)

            One should not lament the death of anybody at all. Lamentation is due to attachment, and attachment binds the individual soul to the wheel of transmigration. Therefore, the scriptures suggest one should not mourn, but pray for several days after the person’s death for salvation of the departed soul.

            The inevitability of death and indestructibility of the soul, however, does not and cannot justify lawful but unnecessary killing of any creature, unjust war, or even suicide. The Vedic scriptures are very clear on this point in regard to killing human beings or any other living entity. The scripture says: One should not commit violence towards anyone. Unauthorized killing is punishable in all circumstances: A life for life. Lord Krishna is urging Arjuna to fight ¾ but not to kill wantonly ¾ in order to establish peace and law and order on earth as a matter of a warrior's duty.

अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत ।

अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिवेदना ॥२८॥

 

** हे अर्जुन, सभी प्राणी जन्म से पेहले अप्रकट थे और मृत्यु के बाद फिर अप्रकट हो जायेंगे, केवल (जन्म और मृत्यु के) बीच में प्रकट दीखते हैं, फिर इसमें शोक करने की क्या बात है? (२.२८)

All beings are unmanifest (or invisible) to our physical eyes before birth and af­ter death. They manifest between birth and death only. What is there to grieve about? (2.28)

THE INDESTRUCTIBLE SPIRIT TRANSCENDS MIND AND SPEECH

आश्चर्यवत् पश्यति कश्चिद् एनम्

आश्चर्यवद् वदति तथैव चान्यः ।

आश्चर्यवच्चैनम् अन्यः शृणोति

श्रुत्वायेनं वेद न चैव कश्चित् ॥२९॥

 

कोई इस आत्मा को आश्चर्य की तरह देखता है, कोई इसका आश्चर्य की तरह वर्णन करताहै, कोई आश्चर्य की तरह सुनता है, और कोई इसके बारे में सुन्कर भी नहीं स्मझ पाता है (२.२९)

Some look upon this Spirit as a wonder, another describes it as won­der­ful, and others hear of it as a wonder. Even after hearing about it, very few people know what the Spirit is. (See also KaU 2.07) (2.29)

देही नित्यम् अवध्योऽयं देहे सर्वस्य भारत ।

तस्मत् सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुम् अर्हसि ॥३०॥

 

हे अर्जुन, सबके शरीर में रहनेवाला यह आत्मा सदा अवध्य है, इस्लिए किसी भी प्राणी के लिए तुम्हें शोक नहीं करना चाहिए (२.३०)

O Arjuna, the Spirit that dwells in the body of all beings is eternally indestructible. Therefore, you should not mourn for anybody. (2.30)

LORD KRISHNA REMINDS ARJUNA OF THE DUTY OF A WARRIOR

स्वधर्मम् अपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुम् अर्हसि ।

धर्म्याद्धि युद्धच्छ्रेयोऽन्यत् क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते ॥३१॥

 

और अपने स्वधर्म की दृष्टि से भी तुम्हे अपने कर्तव्य से विचलित नहीं होना चाहिए, क्योंकि क्षत्रिय के लिये धर्मयुद्ध से बढकर दूसरा कल्याणकारी कर्म नहीं है. (२.३१)

 

Considering also your duty as a warrior, you should not waver because there is nothing more auspicious for a warrior than a righteous war. (2.31)

यदृच्छया चोपपन्नं स्वर्गद्वारम् अपावृतं ।

सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभन्ते युद्धम् ईदृशं ॥३२॥

 

हे पृथानन्दन, अपनेआप प्राप्त हुआ युद्ध स्वर्ग के खुले हुए द्वार जैसा है, जो सौभाग्यशाली क्षत्रियों को ही प्राप्त होता है (२.३२)

Only the fortunate warriors, O Arjuna, get such an opportunity for a righteous war against evil that is like an open door to heaven. (2.32)

            The righteous war is not a religious war against the followers of other religions. The righteous war may be waged even against our own evil-doer kith and kin (RV 6.75.19). Life is a con­tinuous battle between the forces of evil and goodness. A valiant per­son must fight with the spirit of a warrior ¾ with a will and determination for victory ¾ and without any compromise with the forces of evil and difficulties. God helps the valiant who adhere to morality. Dharma (righteousness) protects those who protect Dharma (morality, justice, and righteousness).

            It is better to die for a right cause and acquire the grace of sacrifice than to die an ordinary but compulsory death. The gates of heaven open wide for those who stand up to vindicate justice and righteousness (Dharma). Not to oppose an evil is to indirectly support it. Very similar ideas are expressed in other scriptures of the world. The Koran says: Allah loves those who battle for His cause in ranks (Surah 61.04). The Bible says: Happy are those who suffer persecution because they do what God requires. The kingdom of heaven belongs to them (MATTHEW 5.10). There is no sin in killing an aggressor. Whosoever helps and supports an aggressor is also an aggressor. Thus, all those who supported Kauravas were basically aggressors and deserved to be eliminated.

अथ चेत् त्वम् इमं धर्म्यं संग्रामं न करिष्यसि ।

ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापम् अवाप्स्यसि ॥३३॥

 

और यदि तुम इस धर्मयुद्ध को नहीं करोगे, तब अपने स्वधर्म और कीर्ति को खोकर पाप को प्राप्त होगे (२.३३)

If you will not fight this battle of good over evil, you will fail in your duty, lose your reputation as a warrior, and incur sin (by not doing your duty). (2.33)

अकीर्ति चापि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तेऽव्ययां ।

संभावितस्य चाकीर्तिर् मरणाद् अतिरिच्यते ॥३४॥

 

तथा सब लोग बहुत दिनों तक तुम्हारी अपकीर्ति की चर्चा करॆंगे, सम्मानित व्यक्ति के लिए अपमान मृत्यु से भी बढकर है (२.३४)

People will talk about your disgrace for a long time. To the honorable, dishonor is worse than death. (2.34)

भयाद् रणाद् उपरतं मंस्यन्ते त्वां महारथाः ।

येषां च त्वं बहुमतो भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवं ॥३५॥

 

महारथि लोग तुम्हें डरकर युद्ध से भागा हुआ मानेंगे और जिनके लिए तुम बहुत माननीय हो, उनकी दृष्टिसे तुम नीचे गिर जाओगे. (२.३५)

The great warriors will think that you have retreated from the battle out of fear. Those who have greatly esteemed you will lose respect for you. (2.35)

अवाच्यवादांश्च बहून् वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः ।

निन्दन्तस् उत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ॥३६॥

 

तुम्हारे वैरी लोग तुम्हारी सामर्थ्य की निन्दा करते हुए तुम्हारी बहुत बुराई करेंगे. तुम्हारे लिए इससे अधिक दुःखदायी और क्या होगा ? (२.३६)

Your enemies will speak many unmentionable words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful to you than this? (2.36)

हतो वा प्राप्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीं ।

तस्माद् उत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ॥३७॥

 

युद्ध में मरकर तुम स्वर्ग जाओगे या विजयी होकर पृथ्वी के राज्य भोगोगे, इसलिए हे कौन्तेय, तुम युद्ध के लिए निश्चय करके खडे हो जाओ (२.३७)

You will go to heaven if killed in the line of duty, or you will enjoy the kingdom on the earth if victori­ous. No matter what happens, you win. Therefore, get up with a determination to fight, O Arjuna. (2.37)

सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ ।

ततओ युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापम् अवाप्यसि ॥३८॥

 

**सुख- दुःख, लाभ-हानि और जीत- हार की चिंता न करके मनुष्य को अपनी षक्ति के अनुसार कर्तव्य-कर्म करना चाहिए, ऎसे भाव से कर्म करने पर मनुष्य को पाप (अर्थात कर्म का बन्धन) नहीं लगता (२.३८)

Treating pleasure and pain, gain and loss, and victory and defeat alike, en­gage yourself in your duty. By doing your duty this way, you will not incur any sin. (2.38)

            Lord Krishna says here that even the violence done in the line of duty with a proper frame of mind, as discussed in the above verse, is sinless. This is the starting verse of the theory of KarmaYoga, the main theme of the Gita.

            The wise should wholeheartedly welcome pleasure and pain, joy and sorrow, without becoming discouraged (MB 12.174.39). Two types of people are happy in this world: those who are completely ignorant and those who are truly wise. All others are unhappy (MB 12.174.33).

THE SCIENCE OF KARMA-YOGA, THE SELFLESS ACTION

एषातेऽभिहिता सांख्ये बुद्धिर् योगे त्व् इमां शृणु ।

बुद्धया युक्तो यया पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि ॥३९॥

 

हे पार्थ, मैने सांख्यमत का यह ज्ञान तुम से कहा, अब कर्मयोग का विषय सुनो, जिस ज्ञान से युक्त होकर तुम कर्म के बंधन से मुक्त हो जाओगे (२.३९)

 

The science of transcendental knowledge has been im­parted to you, O Arjuna. Now listen to the science of God-dedicated, selfless action (Seva), en­dowed with which you will free yourself from Karmic bondage, or sin. (2.39)

नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते ।

स्वल्पम् अप्य अस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात् ॥४०॥

 

कर्मयोग में आरम्भ अर्थात् बीज का नाश नहीं होता, तथा उल्टा फल भी नहीं मिलता है. इस् निष्काम कर्मयोगरूपी धर्म क थोडासा अभ्यास भी (जनन्-मरण् रूपी) महान् दुख् से रक्षा करता है (२.४०)

No effort ever goes to waste in selfless service, and there is no adverse effect. Even a lit­tle practice of this discipline protects one from great trouble of birth and death. (2.40)

            The selfless action is also called Seva, KarmaYoga, sacrifice, yoga of work, science of proper action, and yoga of equanimity. A KarmaYogi works with love for the Lord as a matter of duty without a desire for the fruits of work or attachment to the results, and becomes free from all fear. The word Karma also means duty, ac­tion, deeds, work, endeavor, or the results of past deeds.

व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिर् एकेह कुरुनन्दन ।

बहुशाखा ह्य अनन्ताश्च बुद्धरोऽव्यवसायिनां ॥४१॥

 

हे अर्जुन, कर्मयोगि केवल ईश्वर्प्राप्ति का ही दृढ निश्चय करता है, परन्तु सकाम मनुष्यों की इच्छायें अनेक और अनन्त होती है (२.४१)

 

A selfless worker has resolute determination only for God-realization, but the desires of one who works to enjoy the fruits of work are endless, which makes the mind unsteady. (2.41)

THE VEDAS DEAL WITH BOTH MATERIAL AND SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF LIFE

याम् इमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्य् अविपश्चितः ।

वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यद् अस्तीति वादिनः ॥४२॥

 

हे पार्थ, सकामी अविवेकीजन जिन्हें वेद के मधुर संगीतमय वाणी से प्रेम है,(वेद को यथार्थ रूप से नहीं समझने के कारण ) ऎसा समझते हैं कि वेद में भोगों के सिवा और कुछ है ही नहीं (२.४२)

The misguided ones who delight in the melodious chanting of the Vedas ¾ without understanding the spiritual meaning of the Vedas ¾ think, O Arjuna, there is nothing else in the Vedas except the rituals for the sole purpose of obtaining heavenly enjoyment. (2.42)

कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम्

क्रियाविशेष बहुलां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति   

वे कामनाओं से युक्त  स्वर्ग को ही श्रेष्ठ माननेवाले भोग और धन को प्राप्त कराने वाली अनेक धार्मिक संस्कारों को बतते हैं जो पुनर्जन्म्रूपी कर्मफल को देनेवाली होती है (२.४३)

They are dominated by material desires and consider the attainment of heaven as the highest goal of life. They engage in specific rites for the sake of material prosperity and enjoyment. Rebirth is the result of their action. (2.43)

भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् ।

व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ॥४४॥

 

भोग अय्र ऎश्वर्य ने जिनका चित्त हर लिया है ऎसे व्यक्ति के अन्तःकरण में भगवत प्राप्ति का धृढ निश्चय नहीं होता है और वे परमात्मा का ध्यान नहीं कर सकते हैं (२.४४)

 

The resolute determination for God-realization in trance is not possible for those who are attached to pleasure and power and whose judgment is obscured by ritualistic activities for fulfillment of material desires. (2.44)

            Self-realization is to know one’s relationship with the Supreme Lord and His true transcendental nature. The promise of material benefits of Vedic rituals is like the promise of candy to a child by the mother to induce him or her to take the medicine of detachment from the material life; it is neces­sary in most instances. Rituals must be changed with time and backed up by devotion and good deeds. People may pray and meditate anytime, anywhere, without any ritual. Rituals have played a great role in spiritual life, but they have been greatly abused. Lord Krishna and Lord Buddha both disapproved the misuse of Vedic rituals, not the ritu­als as such. Rituals create a holy and blissful atmosphere. They are regarded as a heavenly ship (RV 10.63.10) and criticized as a frail raft (MuU 1.2.07).

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगु ण्यो भवार्जुन ।

निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ॥४५॥

 

हे अर्जुन, वेदों (के कर्मकाण्ड) का विषय प्रकृति के तीन गुणों से संबन्धित है, तुम त्रिगुणातीत, निर्द्वन्द्व, परमात्मा में स्थित योगक्षेम न चाहनेवाले, आत्मपरायण बनो (२.४५)

A portion of the Vedas deals with three modes — goodness, passion, and ignorance — of material Nature. Rise above these three modes, and be ever Self-conscious. Become free from the tyranny of pairs of opposites. Remain tranquil and unconcerned with the thoughts of acquisition and preservation of material objects. (2.45)

यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः संप्लुतोदके ।

तावान् सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ॥४६॥

 

ब्रह्म को तत्व से जाननेवालों के लिए वेदों की उतनी आवश्यकता रहती है जितना महान् सरोवर के प्राप्त होनेपर एक छोटे जलाशय की (२.४६)

To the enlightened person, who has realized the true nature of the Self within, the Vedas become as useful as a small reservoir of water when the water of a huge lake becomes available. (2.46)

            A scripture is like a finite pond that derives its water from the infinite ocean of Truth. Therefore, scriptures become unnec­essary only after enlightenment in much the same way that a reservoir of water has no use when one is surrounded by floodwater. One who has realized the Supreme Being will not desire the attainment of heaven mentioned as the fruits of performing Vedic rituals. Scriptures, such as the Vedas, are necessary means, but not the end. Scriptures are meant to lead and guide us on the spiritual path. Once the goal is reached, they have served their purpose.

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF KARMAYOGA

कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन ।

मा कर्म फलहेतुर् भूर् मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्व अकर्मणि ॥४७॥

 

**केवल कर्म करना ही मनुष्य के वश में है, कर्मफल नहीं इस्लिये तुम कर्मफल की आसक्ति में न फंसो, तथा अपने कर्म का त्याग भी न करो (२.४७)

You have control over doing your respective duty only, but no control or claim over the results. To enjoy the fruits of work should not be your motive, and you should never be inactive. (2.47)

            This key verse of the Gita has confused some commentators and common people who interpret it to mean that one should work without expecting a fruit. This would mean that Lord Krishna should not expect Arjuna to understand and follow His teachings! No one can perform action without expecting some result. This verse means that one should not expect only favorable results of your choice and should accept all results as Prasada (Grace) from God. This is called Prasada Buddhi, BuddhiYoga or KarmaYoga.

            The right outlook on life develops when we fully understand that we have the ability to put our best effort into all endeavors, but we cannot pick the results of our work. We have absolutely no control over all the factors that determine the results. The affairs of the world would not run if all were given the power to choose the results of their ac­tions or to satisfy all their desires. One is given the power and the ability to do one’s respective duty in life, but one is not free to choose the desired results. To work without ex­pecting success or good results would be meaningless, but to be fully prepared for the unexpected should be an important part of any plan­ning. Swami Karmananda says: The essence of KarmaYoga is to go to work just to please the creator; mentally re­nounce the fruits of all action; and let God take care of the results. Do your duty in life ¾ to the best of your ability ¾ as God’s personal ser­vant without any regard for the personal enjoyment of the fruits of your work.

            Fear of failure, caused by being emotionally attached to the fruits of work, is the greatest impediment to success be­cause it robs efficiency by constantly disturbing equanimity of mind. Therefore, duty should be performed with detached attach­ment. Success in any undertaking becomes easier if one works hard without being bothered by the outcome. Work is done more efficiently when the mind is not bothered continuously — consciously or subconsciously —  with the outcome, good or bad, of an action.

            One has to dis­cover this fact personally in life. A person should work without any mo­tive as a matter of duty for a greater cause of helping human­ity rather than just helping oneself, one's children, or a few individuals. Equanimity and spiri­tual progress result from selfless service, whereas work with selfish motives create the bonds of Karma as well as great disappointments. Dedicated selfless service for a greater cause leads to everlasting peace and happiness here and hereafter.

            The boundary of one’s jurisdiction ends with the completion of duty; it never crosses the garden of fruit. A hunter has control over the arrow only, never over the deer. Harry Bhalla says: A farmer has control over how he works his land, yet no control over the harvest. But he cannot expect a harvest if he does not work his land.

            When one has no desire for the pleasure of victory, one is not affected by the pain of de­feat. Questions of the pleasure of success or the pain of failure do not arise because a KarmaYogi is always on the path of service without waiting to enjoy the fruit or even the flower of work. He or she has learned to enjoy the joy of service. The myopia of short-term, personal gain, caused by ignorance of metaphysics, is the root of all evils in society and the world. The bird of righteousness cannot be con­fined in the cage of personal gain. Dharma and selfishness cannot stay together.

            The desire for fruit takes one to the dark alley of sin and prevents one’s real growth. Acting only in one’s own self-interest is sinful. The welfare of the individual lies in the welfare of society. The wise work for all of society, whereas the ig­norant work only for themselves or their children and grandchildren. One who knows the Truth does not let the shadow of personal gain fall on the path of duty. The secret art of living a meaningful life is to be intensely active without any motive, as stated below: 

योगस्थः कुरु कर्मणि सङगं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय ।

सिद्ध्यसिद्धयोः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ॥४८॥

 

**हे धनंजय, परमात्मा के ध्यान और चिन्तन में स्थित होकर, सभी प्रकार की आसक्तियों को त्यागकर, तथा सफलता और असफलता में सम होकर, अपने कर्तव्यकर्मों का पालन करो, मन का समत्व भाव में रहना ही कर्मयोग कहलाता है. (२.४८)

Do your duty to the best of your ability, O Arjuna, with your mind at­tached to the Lord, abandoning attachment to the results, and remaining calm in both success and failure. Equanimity of mind is called KarmaYoga (because it leads to union with God). (See also 6.03-04) (2.48)

            KarmaYoga is defined as doing one’s duty while maintaining equanimity under all circumstances. Pain and pleasure, birth and death, loss and gain, union and separation are inevitable, being under the control of one’s past deeds or Karma, like the coming of day and night. Fools rejoice in prosperity and mourn in adversity, but a KarmaYogi remains tranquil under all circumstances (TR 2.149.03-04). The word ‘yoga’ has also been defined in the following verses of the Gita: 2.50, 2.53, 6.04, 6.08, 6.19, 6.23, 6.29, 6.31, 6.32, and 6.47. Any practical technique of understanding the Supreme Reality and uniting with Him is called spiritual practice, or yoga.

दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्धनंजय।

बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ कृपणाः फलहेतवः ॥२.४९॥

 

कर्म योग से सकामकर्म अत्यन्त निकृष्ट है, अतः हे अर्जुन, तुम कर्मयोगी बनो, क्योंकि फल की इच्छा रखने वालों को (असफ्लता का भय तथा) दुःख होता है (२.४९)

 

Work done with selfish motives is inferior by far to selfless service. Therefore, be a selfless worker, O Arjuna. Those who work only to enjoy the fruits of their labor are unhappy (because one has no control over the results). (See also 2.48, 6.03, 10.10, and 18.57 ) (2.49)

बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते ।

तस्माद् योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलं ॥५०

**  कर्मफल की आसक्ति त्यागकर कर्म करनेवाला निष्काम कर्मयॊगि इसी जीवन मे पाप और पुण्य से मुक्त हो जाता है. इसलिए तुम निष्काम कर्मयोगि बनो. (फल की आसक्ति से असफलता का भय होता है, जिस्के कारण कर्म अच्छी तरह नहीं हो पाताहै) निष्काम कर्मयोग को ही कुशलता पूर्वक कर्म करना कहते हैं . (२.५०)

A KarmaYogi or the selfless person becomes free from both vice and virtue in this life itself. Therefore, strive for selfless service. Working to the best of one’s abili­ties without becoming attached to the fruits of work is called KarmaYoga or Seva. (2.50)

            Peace, composure, and freedom from Karmic bond­age await those who work for a noble cause with a spirit of detach­ment and do not seek any personal reward or recognition. Such per­sons enjoy the joy of selfless service that ultimately leads them to the bliss of salvation. KarmaYoga purifies the mind and is a very powerful and easy spiritual discipline that one can practice while living and working in society. There is no religion better than selfless service. The fruits of vice and virtue grow only on the tree of selfishness, not on the tree of selfless service.

            Generally, it is thought that one works harder when one is deeply interested in, or attached to, the fruits of work. Therefore, KarmaYoga or selfless service may not be very conducive to the material progress of the individual or society. This dilemma can be solved by developing a hobby of selfless service to a noble cause of one’s choice, never letting greed for the fruits dilute the purity of action. Dexterity or skillfulness in work lies in not getting bound by the bonds of one’s Karma or worldly duty.

कर्मजं बुद्धियुक्ता हि फलं त्य्क्त्वा मनीषिणः ।

जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्त्य् अनामयं ॥५१॥

 

 ज्ञानी कर्मयोगी जन कर्मफल की आसक्ति को त्यागकर जनन-मरण के बन्धन से मुक्त हो जाते हैं. तथा परम शान्ति को प्राप्त करते हैं.(२.५१)

KarmaYogis are freed from the bondage of rebirth due to renouncing (attachment to) the fruits of all work and they attain a blissful divine state of salvation or Nirvana. (2.51)

यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर् व्यतितरिष्यति ।

तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ॥५२॥

 

जब तुम्हारी बुद्धि मोहरूपी दलदल को पार कर जायगी उस समय तुम शास्त्र से सुने हुए तथा सुनने योग्य वस्तुओं से भी वैराग्य प्राप्त करोगे (२.५२)

When your intellect will completely overcome the mire of delusion (regarding Self and non-Self), then you will become indifferent to what has been heard and what is yet to be heard (from the scriptures). (2.52)

            Scriptures become dispensable after enlightenment. According to Shankara, this verse means one who has completely removed the veil of ignorance and realized the Truth, becomes indiffer­ent to the Vedic texts that prescribe details of performing rituals for the attainment of desired fruits.

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला ।

समाधावचला बुद्धिस् तदा योगम् अवाप्यसि ॥५३॥

 

जब अनेक प्रकर के प्रवचन सुनने से विचलित हुई तुमहारी बुद्धि परमात्मा में निश्चल रॊप से स्थिर हो जायेगी, उस समय तुम समाधि में परमात्मा से युक्त हो जाओगे (२.५३)

When your mind, which is confused by hearing conflicting opinions and doctrines, shall stay steady and firm on the Supreme Being, then you shall become united with God in deep meditation. (2.53)

            Non-scriptural reading or reading of different philosophical writings is bound to create confusion. Ramakrishna said: “One should learn from the scriptures that God alone is real and the world is illusory.” A beginner should know that only God is eternal and everything else is temporal. After Self-awareness, one finds God alone has become everything. Everything is His manifestation. He is sport­ing in various forms. In trance, or the superconscious state of mind, the confusion arising from conflicting views ceases, and mental equipoise is attained.

            Different schools of thought, cults, systems of phi­losophy, ways of worship, and spiritual practices found in the Vedic culture are different rungs in the ladder of yoga. Such a wide choice of methods does not exist in any other system, religion, or way or life. People’s tempera­ments are different due to differences in their stages of spiritual development and understanding. Therefore, different schools of thought are necessary to suit different individuals, as well as the same individual as he or she grows and de­velops. The highest philosophy of pure monism is the topmost rung of the ladder. The vast majority cannot comprehend it. All schools and cults are necessary. One should not be confused because different methods are not meant to confuse, but one should choose wisely.

अर्जुन उवाच

स्थित प्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समधिस्तस्य केशव ।

स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किम् आसीत् व्रजेत किं ॥५४ ॥

 

अर्जुन बोले- हे केशव, समाधि प्राप्त, स्थिर बुद्धिवाले, अर्थात स्थितप्रज्ञ मनुष्य का क्या लक्षण है, कैसे बैठता है, कैसे चलता है (२.५४)

Arjuna said: O Krishna, what are the marks of an enlightened person whose intellect is steady? What does a person of steady intellect think and talk about? How does such a person behave with others, and live in this world? (2.54)

            The answers to all of the above questions are given by Lord Krishna in the remaining verses of this chapter.

MARKS OF A SELF-REALIZED PERSON

श्री भगवानुवाच

प्रजहाति यदा कामान सर्वान पार्थ मनोगतान ।

अत्मन्येवात्मनो तुष्टः स्थित्प्रज्ञस तदोच्यते ॥५५॥

 

श्री भगवान बोले - हे पार्थ, जिस समय साधक अपने मन की सम्पूर्ण कामनाओं को पूर्णरूप से त्याग देता है और आत्मा में आत्मानन्द से सन्तुष्ट रहता है, उस समय वह स्थितप्रज्ञ कहलाता है (२.५५)

 

Lord Krishna said: When one is completely free from all desires of the mind and is satisfied with the bliss of knowing the Supreme Being, then one is called an enlightened person, O Arjuna. (2.55)

            According to mother Sarda, desires for knowledge, devotion, and salvation cannot be classed as desires because they are higher desires. One should first replace the lower desires with higher desires and then renounce the highest desires also and be­come absolutely free. It is said that the highest freedom is the freedom from becoming free.

दुःखेषु अनुद्विग्न मनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।

वीतराग भय क्रोध स्थितधीः मुनिरुच्यते ॥५६॥

 

** दुःख से जिसका मन उद्विग्न नही होता, सुख की जिसको आकांक्षा नहीं होती, तथा जिसके मन से राग, भय और क्रोध नष्ट हो गये हैं , ऎसा मुनि स्थितप्रज्ञ कहा जाता है . (२.५)

A person is called an enlightened sage of steady intellect whose mind is unperturbed by adversity, who does not crave pleasures, and who is completely free from attachment, fear, and anger. (2.56)

            Attachment to people, places, and objects takes away the intellect, and one becomes myopic. People are help­lessly tied with the rope of attachment. One has to learn to cut this rope with the sword of knowledge of the Absolute and become detached and free.

यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस् तत् तत् प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।

नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥५७॥

 

जैसे किसी भी  वस्तु मे आसक्ति न हो जो शुभ को प्राप्त्कर प्रसन्न न हो और अशुभ से द्वेष न करे, उसकी बुद्धि स्थिर है (२.५७)

The mind and intellect become steady in a person who is not attached to anything, who is neither elated by get­ting desired results nor perturbed by undesired results. (2.57)

            True spiritualists have a peaceful and happy look on their faces under all circumstances.

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङगानीव सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणिन्द्रियार्थेभ्यसु तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥५८॥

 

जब साधक सब ओर से अपनी इन्द्रियों को विषयोंसे इस तरह हटा ले जैसे कछुआ (विपत्ति के समय अपनी रक्षा के लिये ) अपने अंगों को समेट लेता है , तब उसकि बुद्धि स्थिर समझनी चाहिए (२.५८)

 

When one can completely withdraw the senses from sense objects, as a tortoise withdraws its limbs into the shell for protection from calamity, then the intellect of such a person is considered steady. (2.58)

            When a person learns to control or withdraw the senses from sense objects, as a tortoise retracts its limbs inside its shell in time of danger and cannot be forced to extend its limbs again until the trouble is over, the lamp of Self-knowledge becomes lighted, and one perceives the self-effulgent Supreme Being within (MB 12.174.51). A Self-realized person enjoys the beauty of the world, keeping the senses under complete control like a tortoise. The best way to purify the senses and control them perfectly like a tortoise, is to engage them in the service of God at all times.

विषयानि विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।

रसवर्ज्यं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ॥५६॥

 

इन्द्रियों को विषयों से हटाने वाले मनुष्य से विषयों की इच्छा तो हट भी जाती है, परन्तु विषयों की आसक्ति दूर नहीं होती. परमात्मा के स्वरूप को (तारतम्य  विद्या द्वारा ) भलीभांति समझ कर स्थितप्रज्ञ मनुष्य (विषयों की ) आसक्ति से भी दूर हो जाता है (२.५९)

The desire for sensual pleasures fades away if one abstains from sense enjoyment, but the craving for sense enjoyment remains in a very subtle form. This subtle crav­ing also completely disappears from one who knows the Supreme Being. (2.59)

            The desire for sensual pleasure becomes dormant when one abstains from sense enjoyment, or incurs physical limita­tions imposed by disease or old age. But the craving remains as a subtle mental impression. Those who have tasted the nectar of unity with the Supreme Being no longer find enjoy­ment in the lower-level sensual pleasures. The subtle craving lurks like a robber ready to rob the striver at the appropriate opportunity, as explained below:

DANGERS OF UNRESTRAINED SENSES

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।

इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥६०॥

 

** हे कुन्तिनन्दन, संयम का प्रयत्न करते हुए ज्ञानी मनुष्य के मन को भी चंचल इन्द्रियां बलपूर्वक हर लेती हैं.(.६०)

Restless senses, O Arjuna, forcibly carry away the mind of even a wise person striving for perfection. (2.60)

            The wise always keep vigilance over the mind. The mind can never be fully trusted. It can mislead even a Self-realized person (BP 5.06.02-05). One has to be very alert and closely witness the wanderings of the mind. Never relax your vigilance until the final goal of God-realization is reached. Mother Sarda said: It is the very nature of the mind to go to lower objects of enjoyment, just as it is the nature of water to flow downwards. The grace of God can make the mind go towards higher objects, just as the sun’s rays lift the water to the sky.

            The human mind is ever ready to deceive and play tricks. Therefore, discipline, constant vigilance, and sincere spiritual practice are needed. The mind is like an unruly horse that needs to be broken in. Never let the mind roam unwatched into the realm of sensuality. The path of spiritual life is very slippery and has to be trodden very care­fully to avoid falls. It is not a joyous ferryboat ride, but a very diffi­cult path to tread like the sharp edge of a sword. Many obstacles, dis­tractions, and failures come on the path to help the devotee become stronger and more advanced on the path, just like iron is turned into steel by alternate heating, cooling, and hammering. One should not get discouraged by failures, but carry on with determination.

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।

यतो हि उअस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥६१॥

 

इसलिए साधक अपनी संपूर्ण इन्द्रियों को वश में करके, मुझ में श्र्द्धापूर्वक

 ध्यान लगाकर बैठे, क्योंकि जिसकी इन्द्रियां वश में होती है उस की बुद्धि स्थिर होती है (२.६१)

One should sit with mind firmly focused on Me as the Supreme goal after bringing the senses under control. One’s intellect becomes steady when one’s senses are under control. (2.61)

ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गास् तॆषूपजायते ।

सङ्गात् संजायते कामः कामात् क्रोधोऽभिजायते ॥६२॥

 

**विषयों का चिन्तन करने से विषयों में आसक्ति होती है, आसक्ति से (विषयों के सेवन करने की) इच्छा उत्पन्न होती है और इच्छा (पूरी नहीं होने) से क्रोध होता है (२.६२)

One develops attachment to sense objects by thinking about sense ob­jects. Desire for sense objects comes from attachment to sense objects, and anger comes from unfulfilled desires. (2.62)

क्रोधात् भवति संमोहः संमोहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।

स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति ॥६३॥

 

**क्रोध से सम्मोह अर्थात अविवेक उत्पन्न होता है. सम्मोह से मन भ्रष्ट होने पर बुद्धि का नाश होता है और बुद्धि का नाश होने से मनुष्य का पत्न होता है (२.६३)

 

Delusion or wild ideas arise from anger. The mind is bewildered by delusion. Reasoning is destroyed when the mind is bewildered. One falls down from the right path when reasoning is destroyed. (2.63)

ATTAINMENT OF PEACE AND HAPPINESS THROUGH SENSE CONTROL

रागद्वेष वियुक्तैस्तु विषयान् इन्द्रियैश्चरन् ।

आत्मवश्यैर् विधेयात्मा प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति ॥६४॥

 

रागद्वेश रहित संयमी साधक अ[पने वश में की हुई इन्द्रियों द्वारा विषयॊं को भोगता हुआ शान्ति प्राप्त करता है (२.६४)

 

A disciplined person, enjoying sense objects with senses that are under control and free from attachments and aversions, attains tranquility. (2.64)

            Real peace and happiness are achieved, not by sense gratification, but by sense control.

प्रसादे सर्व दुःखानां हानिर् अस्योपजायते ।

प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धि पर्यवतिष्ठते ॥६५॥

 

शान्ति से सभी दुःखों का अन्त हो जाता है, शान्तचित्त मौनुष्य की बुद्धि शीघ्र ही स्थिर होकर परमात्मा से युक्त हो जाती है (२.६५)

All sorrows are destroyed upon attainment of tranquility. The intel­lect of such a tranquil person soon becomes completely steady and united with the Supreme. (2.65)

नास्ति बुद्धिर् अयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।

न चाभावयतः शान्तिर् अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखं ॥६६॥

 

(ईश्वर से ) अयुक्त मनुष्य के अन्तःकरण में न ईश्वर का ज्ञान होता है, न ईश्वर की भावना ही, भावनाहीन मनुष्य को शान्ति नहीं मिलती और अशान्त मनुष्य को सुख कहां? (२.६६)

There is neither Self-knowledge nor Self-perception for those who are not united with the Supreme. Without Self-perception there is no peace, and without peace there can be no happiness. (2.66)

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन् मनोऽनुविधीयते ।

तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर् नावम् इवाम्भसि ॥६७॥

 

**जैसे जल में तैरती नाव को तूफान उसे अपने लक्ष्य से दूर ढ्केल देता है, वैसे ही इन्द्रिय-सुख मनुष्य की बुद्धि को गलत रास्ते की ओर ले जाता है (२.६७)

The mind, when controlled by the roving senses, steals away the intellect as a storm takes away a boat on the sea from its destination ¾ the spiri­tual shore of peace and happiness. (2.67)

            A person without control over the mind and senses drifts like a ship without its rudder, becomes a reactor instead of an actor, and develops negative Karma.

            Greed for the pleasure of enjoying the light leads bugs to destruction; similarly, desire for the enjoyment of sensual pleasures keeps one away from Self-knowledge and leads into the net of transmigration (MB 3.02.69).

तस्माद् यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः ।

इन्द्रियाणिन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस् तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥६८॥

 

इस्लिए हे अर्जुन, जिसकी इन्द्रियां सर्वथा विषयों का वश में नहीं होती है, उसकी बुद्धि स्थिर रहती है (२.६८)

Therefore, O Arjuna, one’s intellect becomes steady when the senses are completely withdrawn from sense objects. (2.68)

या निशा सर्व भूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।

यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ॥६९॥

 

सब प्राणियॊम के लिये जो रात्रि है, उसमें मनुष्य जागा रेहता है, और जब साधारण मनुष्य जागते हैं, तत्वदर्शी मुनि के लिए वह रात्रि के समान होता है (२.६९)

 

A yogi, the person of self-restraint, remains wakeful when it is night for all others. It is night for the yogi who sees when all others are wakeful. (2.69)

            Ascetics keep awake or detached in the night of mun­dane existence of life because they are in quest of the highest truth. One is considered awake when one is free from worldly de­sires (TR 2.92.02). A yogi is always aware of the Spirit about which others are un­aware. A sage who sees is unaware of the experience of sense objects about which others are aware. The life of an ascetic is entirely different from the life of a materialistic person. What is considered real by a yogi is of no value for a worldly person. While most people sleep and make dream plans in the night of the illusory world, a yogi keeps awake because he or she is detached from the world while living in it.

आपूर्यमाणम  अचल प्रतिष्ठं

समुद्रम् आपः प्रविशन्ति सर्वे ।

तद्वत् कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे

  शान्ति आप्नोति न कामकामी ॥७०॥

 

** जैसे सभी नदियों का जल समुद्र को बिना विचलित करते हुए परिपूर्ण समुद्र में समा जाते है, वैसे ही सब भोग जिस संयमी मनुष्य में विकार उत्पन्न किए बिना समा जाते हैं, यह मनुष्य शान्ति प्राप्त करता है, न कि भोगों की कामना करने वाला (२.७०)

One attains peace when all desires dissipate within the mind without creating any mental disturbance, just as river waters enter the full ocean without creating any dis­turbance. One who desires material objects is never peaceful. (2.70)

            Torrents of the river of desire can carry away the mind of a materialistic person as a river carries away wood and other objects in its path. The tranquil mind of a yogi is like an ocean that takes in the rivers of desire without being disturbed by them because a yogi does not think about personal gain or loss. Human de­sires are endless. To satisfy a desire is like drinking salt water that will never quench thirst, but will increase it. It is like trying to extinguish a fire with gasoline.

            Trying to fulfill material desires is like adding more wood to the fire. The fire will go out if no more wood is added to it (MB 12.17.05). If one dies without conquering the great enemy ¾ desires ¾ one has to reincarnate to fight this enemy again and again till victory (MB 12.16.24). One cannot see one’s face in a pot of water that is dis­turbed by the wind, similarly, one is unable to realize one’s true Self when the mind and senses remain perturbed by the winds of material desires (MB 12.204.03).

विहाय कामान् यः सर्वान् पुमांश्चरति निः स्पृहः ।

निर्ममो निरहंकारः स शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति ॥७१॥

 

जो मनुष्य सब कामनाओं को त्याग्कर इच्छारहित, ममतारहित तथा अहंकार रहित होकर विचरण करता है, वह ही शान्ति प्राप्त करता है (२.७१)

 

One who abandons all desires and becomes free from longing and the feeling of ‘I’ and ‘my’, attains peace. (2.71)

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।

स्थित्वाऽस्याम् अन्तकालेपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणम् ऋच्छति ॥७२॥

 

हे पार्थ , यही ब्राह्मी स्थिति है, जिसे प्राप्त करने के बाद मनुष्य मोहित नहीं होत, अन्तसमय में भी इस निष्ठा में स्थित होकर मनुष्य ब्रह्मनिर्वाण प्राप्त करता है.(२.७२)

 

O Arjuna, this is the superconscious state of mind. Attaining this state, one is no longer deluded. Gaining this state, even at the end of one’s life, a person attains the very goal of human life by becoming one with God. (2.72).

            The Supreme Being is the ultimate Reality and truth, knowledge and consciousness, and is limitless and blissful (TaU 2.01.01). The individ­ual soul becomes blissful and filled with joy after knowing God. The giver of bliss is nothing but the bliss itself like the giver of wealth must have wealth. That from which the origin, sustenance, and dissolution of this universe are derived is called the Absolute (BS 1.01.02, TaU 3.01.01). Knowledge is not a natural quality (Dharma) of the Absolute; it is the intrinsic nature of the Absolute (DB 7.32.19). The Absolute is the substratum, or material as well as efficient cause of the universe. It is both the source and the sink of energy in one. It is also called the Unified Field, Supreme Spirit, Divine Person, and Total Consciousness that is responsible for the sense percep­tions in all living beings by functioning through mind and intellect.

            The word ‘Salvation’ in Christianity means deliverance from the power and penalty of sin. Sin in Hinduism is nothing but the Karmic bondage responsible for transmigration. Thus, salvation is equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Mukti’ in Hinduism — the final emancipation of the living entity from transmigration. Mukti means the complete destruction of all impressions of desires from the causal body. It is the uniting of the individual soul with the Supersoul. Some say that the all-pervading Supersoul is the causal body who is conducting everything and remains compassionately detached. The Sanskrit word ‘Nirvana’ in Buddhism is thought to be the cessation of worldly desires and ego. It is a state of being in which worldly desires and personal likes and dis­likes have been absolutely extin­guished. It is getting out of body-consciousness and attaining a state of Self-consciousness. It is liberation from attachment to the material body and achieving a state of bliss with God.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

कर्मयोगः

PATH OF SELFLESS SERVICE

अर्जुन उवाच

ज्यायसी चेत् कर्मणात् ते, मता बुद्धिर् जनार्दन ।

तत् किं कर्मणि घोरे मां, नियोजयसि केशव ॥१॥

व्यामिश्रेणेव वाक्येन, बुद्धिं मोहयसीव मे ।

तद् एकं वद निश्चित्य, येन श्रेयोऽहम् आप्नुयां ॥२॥

 

अर्जुन बोले- हे जनार्दन, यदि आप कर्म से ज्ञान को श्रेष्ठ मानते हैं, तो फिर, हे केशव, आप मुझे इस भयंकर कर्म में क्यों लगा रहे हैं? आप मिश्रित वचनों से मेरी बुद्धि को भ्रमित कर रहे हैं, अतः आप उस एक बात निश्चितरुप से हिए, जिससे मेरा कल्याण हो (३.१-२)

Arjuna asked: If You consider acquiring transcendental knowledge is better than working, then why do You want me to engage in this horrible war, O Krishna? You seem to confuse my mind by apparently conflicting words. Tell me, decisively, one thing by which I may attain the Supreme. (3.01-02)

            Arjuna was in the mode of delusion; he thought that Lord Krishna meant a contemplative life (BuddhiYoga) was better than doing one’s normal duty in life in verse 2.49. Some people are often confused and think that salvation is possible only by leading a life devoted to scriptural study, contemplation, and acquiring Self-knowledge. Lord Krishna clarifies this by mentioning two major paths of spiritual practice — depending on the nature of the individual — in the following verse:

श्री भगवान् उवाच

लोकेऽस्मिन् द्विविधा निष्ठा, पुरा प्रोक्ता मयाऽनघ ।

ज्ञानयोगेन सांख्यानां, कर्मयोगेन योगिनां ॥३॥

 

** श्री भगवान बोले – हे निष्पाप अर्जुन, इस लोक में दो प्रकार की निष्ठा मेरे द्वारा पेहेले कही गयी है . जिनकी रुचि ज्ञान में लगती है उनकी निष्ठा ज्ञानयोग से और कर्मसे रुचि वालों की निष्ठा कर्मयोग से होती है. (३.३)

Lord Krishna said: In this world I have stated a twofold path of spiritual discipline in past ¾ the path of Self-knowledge (for the contemplative ones) and the path of unselfish work (Seva, KarmaYoga) for all others. (3.03)

            ‘Seva’ or ‘KarmaYoga’ means sacrifice, selfless service, unselfish work, meritorious deeds, giving away something to others. Some people often get confused like Arjuna and think that leading a life devoted to scriptural study, contemplation, and acquiring transcendental knowledge may be better for spiritual progress than doing one’s worldly duty.

            A God-realized person does not consider oneself the doer of any action, but only an instrument in the hands of the divine for His use. It should be further pointed out that both  metaphysical knowledge and selfless service are means to attain the Supreme Being. These two paths are not separate, but complementary. In life a combination of these two modes is considered the best. Carry both selfless service and a spiritual discipline of acquiring Self-knowledge with you as stated in the following verses:

न कर्मणाम् अनारम्भान्, जातु तिष्ठात्य अकर्मकृत् ।

न च संन्यसनाद् एव, सिद्धिं समधिगच्छति ॥४॥

न हि कश्चित् क्षणमपि, जातु तिष्ठत्य अकर्मकृत् ।

कार्यते ह्य अवशः कर्म्, सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर् गुणैः ॥५॥

 

मनुष्य कर्मका त्यागकर कर्म के बंधनों से मुक्त नहीं होता. केवल कर्म का त्याग मात्र से ही सिद्धि की प्राप्ति नहीं होती. कोई भी मनुष्य एक क्षण भी बिना कर्म किए नहीं रह सकता, क्योंकि प्रकृति के गुणों द्वारा मनुष्यों से –परवश की तरह – सभी कर्म करवा लिए जाते है (३.४-५)

One does not attain freedom from the bondage of Karma by merely ab­staining from work. No one attains perfection by merely giving up work because no one can remain actionless even for a moment. Everything in the universe is driven to action ¾ helplessly indeed ¾ by the forces of Nature. (3.04-05)

            It is not possible for anybody to completely abandon action by thought, word, and deed. Therefore, one should always be active in serving the Lord by various means of one’s choosing, and never be without work because an idle mind is the devil’s workshop. Performing action till death with a desireless frame of mind is better than abandoning work and leading the life of an ascetic — even after God-realization — because even an ascetic cannot escape the im­pulse of action.

कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य,  आस्ते मनसा स्मरन् ।

इन्द्रियार्थान् विमूढात्मा, मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते ॥६॥

 

जो मूढ बुद्धि मनुष्य इन्द्रियॊं को (प्रदर्शन के लिए) रोककर मन द्वारा विषयों का चिन्तन करता है, वह मिथ्याचारी कहा जाता है . (३.६)

Anyone who restrains the senses but mentally thinks of sense pleasures, is called a pretender. (3.06)

            One’s growth comes from working selflessly rather than giving up work and practicing sense-control before one is naturally ready for it. Bringing the mind under control is difficult, and spiritual life becomes a mockery without mastery over the senses. Desires may become dormant and rise again to give trouble, just as a sleeping person wakes up in due course of time.

            The four goals of human life — doing one's duty, earning wealth, material and sensual enjoyment, and attaining salvation — were designed in the Vedic tradition for gradual and systematic growth of the individual and the progress of society. Success in spiritual life does not come from prematurely wearing saffron clothes just to maintain an Ashram or livelihood without first conquering the six enemies ¾ lust, anger, greed, pride, attachment, and envy. It is said that such pretenders do a great disservice to God, society, and themselves and become bereft of happiness in this world and the next (BP 11.18.40-41) A pretending monk is considered sinful and a destroyer of the ascetic order of life.

WHY ONE SHOULD SERVE OTHERS?

यस् त्व् इन्द्रियाणि मनसा, नियम्यारभतेऽर्जुन ।

कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगम्, असक्तः स विशिष्यते ॥७॥

 

**परन्तु हे अर्जुन, जो मनुष्य बुद्धि द्वारा अपने इन्द्रियों को वश करके, अनासक्त होकर, कर्मेन्द्रियों द्वारा निष्काम कर्मयोग का आचरण करता है, वही श्रॆष्ठ है (३.७)

 

One who restrains the senses ¾ by (a trained and purified) mind and intellect ¾ and engages the organs of action to selfless service, is considered superior. (3.07)

नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं, कर्म ज्यायो ह्य अकर्मणः ।

शरीरयात्रापि च ते, न प्रसिद्धयेद अकर्मणः ॥८॥

 

तुम् अपने कर्तव्य पालन करो, क्योंकि कर्म करना श्रेष्ठ है, तथा कर्म न करने से शरीर का निर्वाह भी नहीं होगा (३.८)

Perform your obligatory duty because working is indeed better than sitting idle. Even the maintenance of your body would be impossible without work. (3.08)

यज्ञार्थात् कर्मणोऽन्यत्र, लोकोयं कर्मबन्धन: ।

तदर्थ कर्म कौन्तेय, मुक्तसङ्गः समाचर ॥९॥

 

** केवल अपने लिए कर्म कर्ने से मनुष्य कर्म-बंधन से बंध जाता है, इसलिए हे अर्जुन, कर्मफल की आसक्ति त्यागकर, सेवाभाव से भलीभांति अपना कर्तव्य का पालन करो. (३.९)

Human beings in this world are bound by work (Karma) that is not performed as a selfless service (Seva, Yajna). Therefore, becoming free from attachment to the fruits of work, do your duty to the best of your abilities as a service to Me (for the good of humanity). (3.09)

TO HELP EACH OTHER IS THE FIRST COMMANDMENT OF THE CREATOR

सहयज्ञाः प्रजाःसृष्ट्वा, पुरोवाच प्रजापतिः ।

अनेन प्रसविष्यध्वम्, एष वोऽस्त्व् इष्टकामधुक् ॥१०॥

 

सृष्टिकर्ता ब्रह्मा ने सृष्टि के आदि में यज्ञ (अर्थात निःस्वार्थ सेवा ) के साथ प्रजा का निर्माणकर कहा – इस यज्ञ द्वारा तुम लोग वृद्धि प्राप्त करो और यह यज्ञ  तुम लोगों को इष्टफल देनेवाला हो .(३.१०)

In the ancient time, the Creator created human beings together with selfless service (Seva, Yajna, sacrifice) and said: By serving each other you shall prosper, and the sacrificial service shall ful­fill all your desires. (3.10)

देवान् बावयतानेन, ते देवा भावयन्तु वः ।

परस्परं भावयन्तः, श्रेयः परम् आवाप्स्यथ ॥११॥

 

तुम लोग यज्ञ के द्वारा देवताओं को उन्नत करो और देवगण तुम लोगों को उन्नत करें. इस प्रकार एक दूसरे को उन्नत करते हुए तुम परम कल्याण प्राप्त होगे (३.११)

Nourish the celestial controllers with selfless service, and they will nourish you. Thus nourishing each other, you shall attain the Supreme goal. (3.11)

इष्टान् भोगान् हि वो देवा, दास्यन्ते यज्ञभाविताः ।

तैर् दत्तान् अप्रदायैभ्यो, यो भुङ्क्ते स्तेन एव सः ॥१२॥

 

यज्ञ द्वारा पोषित देवगण तुम्हे इष्टफल प्रदान करेंगे. देवताओं के द्वारा दिए हुए भोगों को जो मनुष्य उन्हे बिना दिए अकेलासेवन करता है, वह निश्चय ही चोर है (३.१२)

The celestial controllers, being nourished and pleased by selfless service, will give you all desired objects. One who enjoys the gift of celestial controllers without sharing with others is, indeed, a thief. (3.12)

            A celestial controller or guardian angel means a supernatural ruler, a celestial person, an angel, an agent of God, the cosmic forces that control, protect, and fulfill desires. Even the gates of heaven shall be closed to those who try to enter alone. According to the ancient scriptures, helping others is the best meritorious deed one can do. The wise seek to serve themselves in the service of others while the ignorant serve themselves at the cost of others. To serve each other is the original or first commandment of the creator that has been restated by Lord Krishna in the Gita. God has given us talents to help us serve, and in serving others we grow spiritually. We take birth to help each other, to understand, care, love, give, and forgive each other. According to Muniji “Giving is Living”. Giving makes the world a better place for all humanity.

            It is believed that selfishness saps our natural health and immune system also. When we take steps to move ourselves away from self and think about the needs of others and how to serve them, a physical healing process seems to set in motion. This is especially true if we personally help a person we may never meet again in life.

            One who makes no sacrifice, but grabs everything without helping others, is like a thief. It is said that celestials are pleased when people help each other. The capacity of the giver increases by the grace of God, fulfilling all desires to give. The spirit of cooperation ¾ not competition or confrontation ¾ be­tween human beings, between na­tions, and between organizations seems to be hinted here by the Lord. All the necessities of life are produced by dedicated sacrificial services of other people. We are created to depend on each other. The world has been called a cosmic wheel of cooperative action by Swami Chinmayananda. Cooperation, not competition, is more conducive to overall progress of the individual, as well as society. Nothing worthwhile can be achieved without cooperation and help from others. The world would be a much better place if all inhabitants cooperated and helped each other, rather than fight or compete with each other. It is the selfish motive that prevents cooperation even between spiritual organizations. One who can truly say all organizations, temples, mosques, and churches are our own, is a true leader and a real saint.

यज्ञ शिष्टाशिनः सन्तो, मुच्यते सर्वकिल्बिषैः ।

भुञ्जते ते त्व् अधं पापा, ये पचन्त्यात्मकारणात् ॥१३॥

 

यज्ञ से बचे हुए अन्न को खानेवाले श्रेष्ठ मनुष्य सब पापों से मुक्त हो जाता है, परन्तु जो लोग केवल अपने लिए ्ही अन्न पकाते हैं, वे पाप के भागी होते हैं (३.१३)

The righteous who eat after sharing with others are freed from all sins, but the impious who cook food only for themselves (without first offering to God or sharing with others), in fact, eat sin. (3.13)

            Food should be cooked for the Lord and offered first to Him with love before consuming. Children should be taught to pray before taking food. The house rule should be: No food before prayer and thanking the Lord. Lord further states that helping others is divine:

अन्नाद् भवति भूतानि, पर्जन्याद् अन्नसंभवः ।

यज्ञाद् भवति पर्जन्यो, यज्ञः कर्मसमुद्भवः ॥१४॥

कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि, ब्रह्मक्षारसमुद्भवं ।

तस्मात् सर्वगतं ब्रह्म, नित्यं यज्ञे परितिष्ठितं ॥१५॥

 

समस्त प्राणी अन्न से उत्पन्न होती है , अन्न वृष्टि से होती है, वृष्टि यज्ञ से हिती है, यज्ञ कर्म से, कर्म वेदों में विहित है और वेद अविनाशी ब्रह्म से उत्पन्न हुआ जानो. इस तरह सर्वव्यापी ब्रह्म सदा ही यज्ञ(अर्थात सेवा) में प्रतिष्ठित है. (३.१४-१५)

Living beings are sustained from food grains; grains are produced by sacrificial work (or duty performed by farmers and other field workers) and rain. Duty is prescribed in the scriptures. Scriptures come from the Supreme Being. Thus the all-pervading Supreme Being or God is ever pre­sent in selfless service. (3.14-15)

एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं, नानुवर्तयतीह यः ।

अघायुर् इन्द्रियारामो,  मोघं पार्थ जीवति ॥१६॥

 

** हे पार्थ, जो मनुष्य सेवा द्वारा इस सृष्टिचक्र को चलने रहने में सहयॊग नहीं देता है, वैसा पापमय, भोगी मनुष्य व्यर्थ ही जीता है (३.१६)

One who does not help to keep the wheel of creation in motion by sacrificial duty (Seva) and rejoices in sense pleasures, that sinful person lives in vain. (3.16)

            A grain of wheat is a single grain unless it is dropped into the ground and dies. If it does die, then it produces many grains (JOHN 12.24). Saints, trees, rivers, and earth are for the use of others. However, there is no prescribed duty for the enlightened ones as explained below:

यत् त्वात्मरतिर् एव स्याद्, आत्मतृप्तश्च मानवः ।

आत्मन्येव च संतुष्टस्, तस्य कार्यं न विद्यते ॥१७॥

नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो, नाकृतेनेह कश्चन ।

न च अस्य सर्वभूतेषु, कश्चिद अर्थव्यपाश्रय़ः ॥१८॥

 

परन्तु जो मनुष्य परमात्मा में ही रमण करता है, तथा परमात्मा में ही तृप्त और संतुष्ट रहता है, वैसे आत्मज्ञानी मनुष्य के लिए कॊई कर्तव्य शेष नहीं रहता (३.१७)

जो कर्म करने से या न करने से कोई प्रयोजन नहीं रहता, तथा वह (परमात्मा के सिवा) किसी और प्राणी पर आश्रित नहीं रहता (३.१८)

 

For one who rejoices only with the Supreme Being, who is satisfied with the Supreme Being, and who is content with the Supreme Being alone, for such a Self-realized person there is no duty. Such a person has no interest, whatsoever, in what is done or what is not done. A Self-realized person does not depend on anybody (except God) for anything. (3.17-18)

            All duties, obligations, prohibitions, regulations, and injunctions are meant to lead one to perfection. Therefore, a perfect yogi who has Self-knowledge, detachment, and devotion has nothing more to gain in this world by doing worldly duty.

LEADERS SHOULD SET AN EXAMPLE

तस्माद् असक्तः सततं, कार्य कर्म समाचर 

असक्तो ह्याचरन् कर्म, आप्नोति पूरुषः ॥१९॥

 

**इसलिए तुम असे ही मनुष्य परमात्मा को अनासक्त होकर सदा अपने कर्तव्यकर्म का भलीभांति करो, क्योकि अनासक्त रहकर कर्म करने परमात्मा को प्राप्त करता है (३.१९)

Therefore, always perform your duty to the best of your abilities without any attachment to the results, because by doing work without attachment, one reaches the supreme goal of life. (3.19)

            In no other scripture, written before the Bhagavad-Gita, has the philosophy of KarmaYoga — unselfish devotion for the welfare of humanity — been so beautifully expounded. Lord Krishna has elevated the idea of altruism to the highest form of wor­ship and spiritual practice. By altruism, one obtains grace, by grace one gets faith, and by faith the ultimate Truth is revealed. One immediately feels better by helping others and comes one step closer to perfection. Swami Vivekananda said: Work done for others awakens the subtle and dormant divine power, Kundalini, within our body. An example of attaining Self-realization by persons while doing their worldly duties is given below:

कर्मणैव हि संसिद्धम्, अस्थिता जनकादयः ।

लोकसंग्रहमेवापि, संपश्यन् कर्तुम् अर्हसि ॥२०॥

 

राजा जनक् आदि ज्ञानीजन निष्कामकर्मयोग द्वारा ही परम सिद्धि को प्राप्त हुए थे, लोक कल्याण के लिए भी तुम्हारा कर्म करना ही उचित है (३.२०)

King Janaka and many others attained perfection of Self-realization by selfless service (KarmaYoga) alone. You also should perform your duty with a view to guide people and for the wel­fare of society. (3.20)

            Those who do selfless service are not bound by Karma and attain salvation (VP 1.22.52). Nothing is beyond the reach of those who have others’ interest in mind. Swami Harihar says: Selfless service to humanity is the true service to God and the highest form of worship.

यद् यद् आचरति श्रेष्ठस्, तत् तद् एवेतरो जनाः ।

स यत् प्रमाणं कुरुते, लोकस् तद् अनुवर्तते ॥२१॥

 

श्रेष्ठ मनुष्य जैसा आचरण करता है, दूसरे लोग भी वैसा आचरण करते हैं, वह जो प्रमाण देता है,जन समुदाय उसी का अनुसरण करते है (३.२१)

Because whatever noble persons do, others follow. Whatever standard they set up, the world follows. (3.21)

            People follow whatever great persons do (BP 5.04.15). Jesus said: I have set an example for you, so that you will do just what I have done for you (JOHN 13.15). A leader is obliged to set higher ethical, moral, and spiritual standards for the general population to follow. If the leader fails in this regard, the quality of the nation’s life declines, and the progress of society is greatly hampered. Therefore, leaders have a great burden on their shoulders. The life of a true leader is the life of service and sacrifice. Leadership should not be an enterprise for becoming rich or famous.

न मे पार्थस्ति कर्तव्यं, त्रिषु लोकेषु किंचन ।

नानवाप्तम् अवाप्तव्यं, वर्त एव च कर्मणि ॥२२॥

 

हे पार्थ, तीनों लोकों में न तो मेरा कोई कर्तव्य है और न कोई भी वस्तु मुःए अप्राप्त है, फिर भी मै कर्म कर्ता हूं (३.२२)

 

O Arjuna, there is nothing in the three worlds — heaven, earth, and the lower regions — that should be done by Me, nor there is anything unob­tained that I should obtain, yet I engage in action. (3.22)

यदि ह्यहं न वर्तेयं, जातु कर्मण्यतन्द्रितः ।

मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते, मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः ॥२३॥

उत्सीदेयुर इमे लोका, न कुर्यां कर्म चेद् अहम् ।

संकरस्य च कर्ता स्याम्, उपहन्याम् इमाः प्रजा ॥२४॥

 

क्योंकि यदि मैं सावधान होकर कर्म न करूं हे पार्थ, मनुष्य मेरे ही मार्ग का अनुसरण करेंगे इसलिए यदि मैं कर्म न करूं, तो ये सब लोक नष्ट हो जायेंगे, और मैं ही इनके विनाश का तथा अराजकता का कारण बनूंगा (३.२३-२४)
 

If I do not engage in action relentlessly, O Arjuna, people would follow the same path in every way. These worlds would perish if I did not work, and I would be the cause of confusion and destruction. (3.23-24)

WHAT SHOULD THE WISE DO TO THE IGNORANT?

सक्ता कर्मण्य अविद्वांसो, यथा कुर्वन्ति भारत ।

कुर्याद् विद्वांस् तथासक्तश्, चिकीर्षुर् लोकसंग्रहं ॥२५॥

 

हे भारत, अज्ञानी लोग जिस प्रकार कर्मफल में आसक्त होकर भलीभांति अपना कर्म करते हैं, उसी प्रकार ज्ञानी मनुष्य भी जनकल्याण हेतु आसक्तिरहित होकर भली भांति अपना कर्म करें (३.२५)

 

The ignorant work with attachment to the fruits of work for themselves, and the wise should work without attachment for the welfare of the society. (3.25)

न बुद्धिभेदं जनयेद्, अज्ञानं कर्मसङ्गिनां ।

जोषयेत् सर्वकर्माणि, विद्वान् युक्तः समाचरन् ॥२६॥

 

** ज्ञानी कर्मफल में आसक्त अज्ञानियों की बुद्धि में भ्रम अर्थात कर्मों में अश्रद्धा न करे, तथा स्वयं (अनासक्त होकर) समस्त कर्मों को भलीभांति करता हुआ दूसरों को भी वैसा करना प्रेर दे. (३.२६)

The wise should not unsettle the minds of the ignorant who are attached to the fruits of work, but should inspire others by performing all works to the best of one’s abilities (without attachment to results). (See also 3.29) (3.26)

            Doing one’s duty without a personal, selfish motive is an exalted state given only to the enlightened ones. This may be beyond comprehension of ordinary people. The mark of genius lies in the ability to handle two opposed ideas and paradoxes, such as living in the world with de­tached attachment. Most people work hard only when they have some motivat­ing force, such as enjoyment of the fruits of work. Such persons should not be discouraged or condemned. They should be introduced slowly to the beginning stages of selfless service. The ex­cessive attachment to possessions, not the possessions themselves, becomes the source of misery.

            Just as one has to pray and worship with single-minded attention, similarly, one should perform worldly duties with full attention, even while knowing full well that the world and its affairs are transitory. One should not live thinking only of God and neglect­ing one’s duty in the world. Yogananda said: Be as earnest about meditation as about earning money. One should not live a one-sided life. The importance of controlling the senses and ways to combat ego are given below:

ALL WORKS ARE THE WORKS OF NATURE

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि, गुणौः कर्माणि सर्वशः ।

अहंकारविमूढात्मा, कर्ताहम् इति मन्यते ॥२७॥

 

**वास्तव में संसार के सारे कार्य प्रकृति मं के गुणरूपी परमॆश्वर की शक्ति के द्वारा ही किया जाते हैं, परन्तु अज्ञानवश मनुष्य अपने आपको ही कर्ता समझ लेता है (तथा कर्मफल की आसक्तिरूइफ बंधनों से बंध जाता है, मनुष्य तो परम शक्ति के हाथ की केवल एक कठपुतली मात्र है ) (३.२७)

All actions are performed by the forces (or Gunas) of Nature, but due to delusion of ego or ignorance, people assume themselves to be the doer. (See also 5.09, 13.29, and 14.19) (3.27)

            Indirectly, God is the doer of everything. The power and the will of God do everything. One is not free even to kill oneself. One cannot feel the presence of the omnipresent God as long as one feels: “I am the doer”. If one realizes ¾ by the grace of God ¾ that one is not the doer, but just an instrument, one at once becomes free. A Karmic bondage is created if we consider ourselves the doer and enjoyer. The same work done by a Self-realized master and an ordi­nary person produces different results. The work done by a Self-realized master becomes spiritualized and produces no Karmic bondage because a Self-realized person does not consider oneself the doer or the enjoyer. The work done by an ordinary person produces Karmic bondage.

तत्ववित् तु महाबाहो, गुणकर्मविभागयोः ।

गुणा गुणेषु वर्तन्त, इति मत्वा न सज्जते ॥२८॥

 

परन्तु हे महाबाहो, गुण और कर्म के रहस्य जाननेवाले  ज्ञानी मनुष्य ऎसा समझकर – कि (इन्द्र्यों द्वारा) प्रकृति के घुण ही सारे कर्म करते हैं,( तथा मनुष्य कुछ भी नहीं कर्अता है ) – कर्म में आस्क्त नहीं होते. (३.२८)

One who knows the truth about the role of the forces of Nature in getting work done, does not become attached to work. Because such a person knows that it is the forces of Nature that get their work done (by using our organs as their instruments). (3.28)

प्रकृतेर् गुणसंमूढाः, सज्जन्ते गुणकर्मसु ।

तान् अकृत्स्नविदो मन्दान्, कृत्स्नविन् न विचालयेत् ॥२९॥

 

प्रकृति के गुणों द्वारा मोहित होकर अज्ञानी मनुष्य गुणों के ( द्वारा किए गये) कर्मओं में आसक्त रहते हैं, उन्हे ज्ञानी मनुष्य सकाम कर्म मार्ग से विचलित न करें (३.२९)

Those who are deluded by the illusive power (Maya) of Nature become attached to the work done by the forces of Nature. The wise should not disturb the mind of the ignorant whose knowledge is imperfect. (See also 3.26) (3.29)

            The enlightened one should not try to dissuade or de­tract ignorant ones from performing selfish actions that they do, deluded by the forces of Nature, because doing work ¾ and not the renunciation of work in the initial stages ¾ will ul­ti­mately lead them to realize the truth that we are not the doers, but divine instruments only. Working with attachment also has a place in the development of society and in the life of common people. People can easily transcend selfish desires by working for a noble goal of their choice.

मयि सर्वाणि कर्मणि, संन्य्स्याध्यात्मचेतसा ।

निनाशीर् निर्मतो भुत्वा, युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ॥३०॥

 

** मुझ में चित्त लगाकर, संपूर्ण कर्मों (के फल ) को मुझ में अर्पण करके, आशा, ममता और संतापरहित होकर अपना कर्तव्य (युद्ध) करो. (३.३०)

 

Do your prescribed duty, dedicating all work to Me in a spiritual frame of mind, free from de­sire, attachment, and mental grief. (3.30)

ये मे मतम इदं नित्यम्, अनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवाः ।

श्रद्धावन्तोऽनसूयन्तो, मुच्यन्ते तोऽपि कर्मभिः ॥३१॥

ये त्वेतद् अभ्यसूयन्तो, नानुतिष्ठन्ति मे मतं ।

सर्वज्ञानविमूढांस् तान्, विद्धि नष्टान् अचेतसः ॥३२॥

 

जो मनुष्य बिना आलोचना किए, श्रद्धा पूर्वक मेरे इस उप्देश का सदा पालन करते है, वे कर्मों के बन्धन से मुक्त हो जाते  है. परन्तु जो आलोचक मेरे इस उपदेश का पालन नहीं करते उन्हें अज्ञानी, विवेकहीन तथा खोया हुआ समझन चाहिए (३.३१-३२)

Those who always practice this teaching of Mine ¾ with faith and free from criticism ¾ become free from the bondage of Karma. But those who find fault with this teaching and do not practice it, should be considered ignorant, senseless, and confused. (3.31-32)

सदृशं चेष्टते स्वस्या, प्रकृतेर् ज्ञानवान् अपि ।

प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि, निग्रहः किं करिष्यति ॥३३॥

 

सभी प्राणी अपने स्वभाव-वश ही कर्म करते हैं, ज्ञानी भी अपनी प्रकृति के अनुसार ही कार्य करता है, फिर इन्द्रियों के निग्रह का क्या प्रयोजन है? (३.३३)

All beings follow their nature. Even the wise act according to their own nature. (If we are but slaves of our nature) what, then, is the value of sense restraint? (3.33)

            While we cannot and should not suppress our nature, we must not become victims but rather controllers and masters of the senses by using the discriminative faculties of human life for gradual improvement. The best way to control the senses is to engage all our senses in the service of God.

TWO MAJOR STUMBLING BLOCKS ON THE PATH OF PERFECTION

इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्ते, रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ ।

तयोर् न वशम् आगच्छेत्, तौ ह्यस्य परिपन्थितौ ॥३४॥

 

** प्रत्येक इन्द्रिय के भोग में राग और द्वॆष, मनुष्य के कल्याण मार्ग में विघ्न डालने वाले , दो महान शत्रु रहते हैं, इसलिए मनुष्य को राग और द्वेष के वश में नहीं होना चाहिए . (३.३४)

 

Attachments and aversions for sense ob­jects abide in the senses. One should not come under the control of these two because they are, indeed, two (major) stumbling blocks (on one’s path of perfection). (3.34)

            'Attachment' may be defined as a very strong desire to experience sensual pleasures again and again. 'Aversion' is the strong dislike for the unpleasant. The search for peace of mind, comfort, and happi­ness is the basis of all human endeavors, including the acquisition and propagation of knowledge. Desire — like any other power given by the Lord — is not the problem. We can have desires with a proper frame of mind that gives us control over attachments and aversions. If we can manage our wants, most of the things we possess become dispensable rather than essential. With a right attitude, we can get mastery over all our attachments and aversions. The only necessity is to have a frame of mind that makes most items unnecessary. Those who have knowl­edge, detachment, and devotion have neither likes nor dislikes for any worldly object, person, place, or work. Personal likes and dislikes disturb the equanimity of mind and become a hindrance on the path of spiritual progress.

            One should act with a sense of duty without being strongly influenced by personal likes and dislikes. Selfless service is the only aus­terity and penance in this age by which anyone can reach God while living and working in modern society without going to the moun­tains and jungles.

            Everybody benefits if work is done for the Lord, just as every part of the tree gets water when water is put at the root of the tree rather than on individual leaves. Attachments and aversions are de­stroyed in a noble person at the onset of Self-knowledge and detachment. Personal likes and dislikes are two major obstacles on the path of perfection. One who has conquered attachments and aversions becomes a free person and attains salvation by doing one’s natural duty as stated below:

श्रेयान स्वधर्मो विगुणः, परधर्मात् स्वनुष्ठितात् ।

स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः, परधर्मो भयावहः ॥३५॥

 

अपना गुणरहित सहज और स्वाभाविक कार्य आत्मविकास के लिए दूसरे अच्छे अस्वाभाविक कार्य से श्रेयस्कर है. स्वधर्म कार्य में मरना भी कल्याणकारक है, अस्वाभविक कार्य हानिकारक होता है (३.३५)

 

One’s defective, imperfectly done, natural work is better than faultless, unnatural work, even though (it can be) well done. Even death in carrying out one’s (natural) duty is useful. Unnatural work produces too much stress. (See also 18.47) (3.35)

            One who does the duty ordained by nature is freed from the bonds of Karma and slowly rises above the worldly plane (BP 7.11.32). One who takes on work that was not meant for him or her certainly courts failure. One evolves by the work best suited to one’s own nature or inborn tendencies. There is no perfect occupation. Every occupation in this world has some faults. One should keep oneself free from concern over the faults of one's duty in life. One should carefully study one's nature to determine an appropriate occupation. Natural work does not produce stress and is conducive to creativity. Walking uphill, voca­tionally, against one’s natural tendencies is not only more stressful but also less productive, and it does not provide opportunity and leisure time for spiritual growth and development. On the other hand, if one follows a very easy or artistic path, one may not be able to earn enough to satisfy the ba­sic necessities of (family) life. Therefore, lead a simple life by limiting unnec­essary luxuries, and develop a hobby of selfless service to balance the material and spiritual needs of life. The balanced life is a happy life.

            Obligatory or natural work that is not forbidden by the scriptures, and is done without attachment to the fruits and without the notion of doership, is sinless.

 

LUST IS THE ORIGIN OF SIN

अर्जुन उवाच

अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं, पापं चरति पुरुषः ।

अनिच्छिन्न् अपि वार्ष्णेय, बलाद् इव नियोजितः ॥३६॥

 

अर्जुन बोले- हे कृष्ण, न चाहते हुए भी बलपूर्वक बाध्य किए के समान किससे प्रेरित होकर मनुष्य पाप का आचरण करता है ?(३.३६)

Arjuna said: O Krishna, what impels one to commit sin or selfish deeds as if unwillingly and forced against one’s will? (3.36)

श्री भगवान् उवाच,

काम एष क्रोध एष, रजोगुणसमुद्भवः ।

महाशनो महापाप्मा, विद्ध्येनम् इह वैरिणं ॥३७॥

 

**श्री भगवान बोले- रजो गुण से उत्पन्नयह काम है, यही क्रोध है, कभी पूर्ण नहीं होने वाले इस महापापी काम को ही तुम (आध्यात्मिक माग का) श्त्रु जानो (३.३७)

Lord Krishna said: It is the lust, born out of passion, that becomes anger (when unfulfilled). Lust is insatiable and is a great devil. Know this as the enemy. (3.37)

            The mode of passion is the absence of mental equilibrium leading to vigorous activity to achieve desired fruits. Lust, the passionate desire for all sensual and ma­terial pleasures, is the product of the mode of passion. Lust becomes anger if it is unfulfilled. When the attainment of fruits is hindered or inter­rupted, the intense desire for their achievement turns into fierce rage. Hence, the Lord says that lust and anger are two mighty enemies that can lead one to commit sin and turn one astray from the path of Self-realization, the supreme goal of hu­man life. Actually, mundane desire compels a person to engage in sinful activities in spite of his or her will. Control your wants because whatever you want wants you. Lord Buddha said: Desire is the root of all evils and misery.

धूमेनाव्रियते वहनिर्, यथादर्शो मलेन च ।

यथोब्लेनावृतो गर्भ,  तथा तेनेदम् आवृतं ॥३८॥

आवृतं ज्ञानम् एतेन, ज्ञानिनो नित्यवैरिणा ।

कामरूपेण कौन्तेय, दुष्प्रेणानलेन  ॥३९॥

 

**जैसे धुएं से अग्नि और धूली से दर्पण ढक जाता है, तथा जेर से गर्भ ढका रहता है, वैसे ही काम आत्मज्ञान को ढक देता है, (३.३८) हे कौन्तेय (अर्जुन) अग्नि के समान कभी तृप्त न होनेवाला काम अपने नित्य शत्रु, ज्ञान को ढक देता है (३.३९)

 

what does this great enemy do, where is his residence ,  given in three verses:

As a fire is covered by smoke, as a mirror by dust, and as an embryo by the amnion, similarly, Self-knowledge gets covered by (different degrees of this insatiable) lust, the eter­nal enemy of even the wise ones. (3.38-39)

            Lust and Self-knowledge are eternal enemies. Lust can be destroyed only by Self-knowledge. Where lust resides and how one should control the senses to subjugate lust, are given below:

इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिर्, अस्याधिष्ठान्म् उच्यते ।

एतैर विमोहयत्य एष, ज्ञानम् आवृत्य देहिनं ॥४०॥

 

** इन्द्रियां, मन और बुद्धि काम के निवास स्थान कहे जाते हैं, यह काम इन्द्रियां , मन और बुद्धि को अपने वश में करके ज्ञान को ढ्ककर मनुष्य को भटका देता है (३.४०)

The senses, the mind, and the intellect are said to be the center or the origin of lust. Through these, lust deludes a person by veiling Self-knowledge. (3.40)

तस्मात् त्वम् इन्द्रियाणादौ, नियम्य भरतर्षभ ।

पाप्मानं प्रजहि ह्येनं, ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनं ॥४१॥

 

इसलिए हे अर्जुन, तुम पहले अपनी इन्द्रियो को वश करके, ज्ञान और विवेक के नाशक इस पापी कामरूपी शत्रु का विनाश करो (३.४१)

 

Therefore, by controlling the senses first, kill this devil of mate­rial desires (or lust) that destroys Self-knowledge and Self-realization. (3.41)

            Lust arises at three different levels: At the physical level in any one of the ten senses, at emotional level in the mind or at the thought level in the intellect. Therefore, one must carefully guard all three doors through which lust can enter and control our life. This mighty enemy enslaves the intellect by using the mind as its friend and senses and sense objects as its soldiers. These soldiers keep the individual soul deluded and obscure Absolute Truth as a part of the drama of life. The success or failure of our role in action depends on how we handle our individual role and reach our destiny.

            All desires cannot — and need not — be eliminated, but first selfish desires and motives must be eliminated for spiritual progress. All our actions by thought, word and deed, including desires, should be directed to glorify God and for the good of humanity. The scriptures say: The mortal, when freed from the captivity of desires, becomes immortal and attains liberation even in this very life (KaU 6.14, BrU 4.04.07).

HOW TO CONTROL LUST AND REACH THE GOAL

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुर् इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः ।

मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर् यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥३.४२॥

 

इन्द्रियां शरीर से श्रेष्ठ कहीं जाती है, इन्द्रियों से परे मन है, और मन से परे बुद्धि है और आत्मा बुद्धि से भी अत्यन्त श्रेष्ठ है (३.४२)

The senses are said to be superior (to the body); the mind is superior to the senses; the intellect is superior to the mind; and the Self is supe­rior to the intellect. (See also KaU 1. 03.10-11 and MB 12.204.10) (3.42)

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुर्, इन्द्रियेभ्य्ः परं मनः ।

जाहि शत्रुं महाबाहो, कामरूपं दुरासदं ॥४३॥

 

 ** इस प्रकार आत्मा को मन और बुद्धि से श्रेष्ठ जानकर (सेवा, ध्यान, पूजन, आदि से किए हुए शुद्ध ) बुद्धि द्वारा मन को वश में कर्के, हे महाबाहो, तुम इस दुर्जय कामरूपी शत्रु का विनाश करो (३.४३)

 

Thus, knowing the Self to be the highest, and controlling the mind by the intellect (that is purified and made strong by Self-knowledge), one must kill this mighty enemy, lust (with the sword of true knowledge of the Self), O Arjuna. (See also KaU 1.03.03-04) (3.43)

Uncontrolled worldly desires will ruin the beau­tiful spiritual journey of life. The scriptures provide ways and means of keeping the desires born in the mind under proper control. The body may be compared to a chariot upon which the individual soul ¾ as pas­senger, owner, and enjoyer ¾ is riding on a spiritual journey to­wards the Supreme Abode of the Lord. Selfless service (KarmaYoga) and Self-knowledge are the two wheels of the chariot, and devotion is its axle. Dharma (righteousness) is the road, and the divine qualities (See 16.01-03) are the milestones. The scriptures are the guiding lights to dispel the darkness of ignorance. Sense objects are the roadside green grasses; likes and dislikes for sense objects, people, and places are the two major stumbling blocks on the path (See 3.34); and lust, anger, greed, pride, attachment, and envy are the roadside plunderers. Friends and relatives are fellow travelers whom we temporarily meet during the journey.

               Intellect is the driver of this char­iot. The five senses are the horses. The success of the spiritual journey depends largely on the strength and skill of the driver, the intellect, to control the mind and five sense-horses. Sense objects leave a deep footprint on our mind that is very hard to erase even after fulfillment of desire. Sense objects are more powerful than five senses. 

            In the hierarchy, the more powerful controls the less powerful. Thus, the senses can be controlled by the mind, because mind is the King of senses. Mind is the sixth sense. The mind is certainly very difficult to control, but it can be controlled by steady practice and detachment (See 6.33-36). Steady practice and detachment may be compared to two chords of the rein to control the mind. The mind can be controlled by the intellect with the help of the rein. Also the whip of moral restraints and regulative principles (See Yama and Niyama in PYS 2.30-32) is used to subdue the senses.

If intellect is not powerful enough to control the mind, the passenger will not reach the goal. Self-knowledge is superior to the intellect. The intellect yoked with the Self through Self-knowledge and contemplation becomes pure and strong to control the mind and the mind will control the senses. Thus it can be seen that Self-knowledge is essential for the success of the spiritual journey. Self-knowledge provides power of purification (See 4.37-38), scriptures supply necessary tools (the rein and the whip) and techniques to the intellect to be able to control the mind.

            The sense-horses must be kept under control of the mind, and the mind under control of the intellect at all times. A single moment of care­lessness may lead the seeker to a downfall. A weak intellect will not be able to control the mind and senses. If intellect is weak, desires for sensual pleasures and the sense objects will control the mind instead of mind controlling the senses. The mind and senses will attack and take control of in­tellect, the weak driver, and lead the passenger away from the goal of salvation into the ditch of transmigration (See 2.67).

            Finally, one must cross the river of illusion (Maya) and ¾ by using the bridge of meditation and the silent repetitive chanting of Lord’s name or a mantra to still the ripples of mind waves ¾ reach the spiritual shore of trance. Those who cannot control the senses will not be able to at­tain Self-realiza­tion, the goal of human birth.

            One must not spoil oneself by wrongful temporary pleasures of the senses. One who can control the senses can control the whole world and achieve success in all endeavors. Passion cannot be completely eliminated, but is subdued by Self-knowledge. The intellect becomes polluted during the youthful years, just as the clear water of a river becomes muddy during the rainy season. Keeping good company and setting a higher goal of life prevent the mind and intellect from becoming tainted by the distractions of sensual pleasures. Those who cannot control the senses may not also be successful in studies and at­tain career goals.

अथ चतुर्थोऽध्यायः

CHAPTER 4

ज्ञानकर्मसन्यासयोगः

PATH  OF RENUNCIATION WITH

KNOWLEDGE

                          

श्री भगवान् उवाच

इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवान् अहम् अव्ययं ।

विवस्वान् मनवे प्राह मनुर् इक्ष्वाकवेऽब्रवीत् ॥१॥

एवं परम्परप्राप्तम् इमंराजर्षयो विदुः ।

स कालेनेह महता योगो नष्टः परंतप ॥२॥

स एवायं मया तेऽद्य योगः प्रोक्तः पुरातनः ।

भक्तोऽसि मे सखा चेति रहस्यं ह्येतद् उत्तमं ॥३॥

 

श्री भगवान बोले- मैंने कर्मयोग के इस अविनाशी सिद्धान्त को राजा विवस्वान को सिखाया, विवस्वान ने अपने पुत्र मनु से कहा, तथा मनु ने अपने पुत्र इक्ष्वाकु को सिखाया, इस प्रकार परम्परा से प्राप्त हुए कर्मयोग को राजर्शियों ने जाना, परन्तु हे परन्तप, बहुत दिनॊंके बाद यह ज्ञान इस पृथ्वीलोक में लुप्तसा हो गया. तुम मेरे भक्त और प्रिय मित्र हो, इसलिए वही पुरातन कर्मयोग आज मैंने तुम्हें कहा है, क्योंकि कर्मयोग एक उत्तम रहस्य है. (४.१-३)

 

KARMA-YOGA IS AN ANCIENT FORGOTTEN COMMANDMENT

Lord Krishna said: I taught this KarmaYoga, the eternal science of right ac­tion, to King Vivasvan. Vivasvan taught it to Manu; Manu taught it to Ikshvaku. Thus, the saintly Kings knew this science of proper action (KarmaYoga), handed down in succession. After a long time, this science was lost from this earth. Today, I have described the same ancient science to you because you are my sincere devotee and friend. This science is a supreme secret in­deed. (4.01-03)

            KarmaYoga, discussed in the previous chapter, is declared by the Lord as the supreme secret science of right action. According to Swami Karmananda, a practitioner of KarmaYoga, unless Lord Himself reveals this secret science, no one can practice or even understand it.

अर्जुन उवाच

अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः ।

कथम् एतद् विजानीयां त्वम् आदौ प्रोक्तवान् इति ॥४॥

 

अर्जुन बोले – आपका जन्म तो अभी हुआ है तथा सूर्यवंशी राजा विवस्वा का जन्म सृष्टि के आदि मैं हुआ था, अतः मैं कैसे जानू कि आपही ने विवस्वान से इस योग को कहा था?(४.४)

 

Arjuna said: You were born later, but Vivasvan was born in ancient time. How am I to understand that You taught this science in the begin­ning of the creation? (4.04)

            Arjuna questions how Krishna, a contemporary of Arjuna, could have taught this science of KarmaYoga to King Vivasvan, who was born earlier in ancient times, long before Lord Krishna. The doctrine of Bhagavad-Gita is not just five thousand years old; it is primeval. Lord Krishna restated it in the Gita for the benefit of humanity. All great masters come to rekindle the fire of forgotten Truth. Different people have said everything we hear or read at different times.

THE PURPOSE OF INCARNATION OF GOD

श्री भगवान् उवाच

बहूनि मे व्यतीतानि जन्मानि तव च अर्जुन ।

तान्यहं वेद सर्वाणि न त्वं वेत्थ परंतप ॥५॥

 

श्री भगवान बोले- हे अर्जुन मेरे और तुम्हारे बहुत सारे जन्म हो चुके हैं, उन सब को मैं जानता हूं पर तुम नहीं जानते (४.५)

Lord Krishna said: Both you and I have taken many births. I remember them all, O Arjuna, but you do not remember. (4.05)

अजोऽपि सन्न् अव्ययात्मा भूतानाम् ईश्वरोऽपि सन् ।

प्रकृतिं स्वाम् अधिष्ठाय संभवाम्यात्मायया ॥६॥

 

यद्यापि मैं अजन्मा, अविनाशी, तथा समस्त प्राणियों का ईश्वर हूं, फिर भी अपनी प्रकृति को अधीन करके अपनी योगमाया से प्रकट होता हूं (४.६)

Though I am eternal, immutable, and the Lord (Ishvara, controller) of all beings, yet I manifest Myself by controlling material Nature, using My own divine potential energy, Yoga-Maya. (See also 10.14) (4.06)

       Yoga-māyā (Divine Light, Brahma-jyoti, Noor) is the creative power (ænanda-%akti) of Lord K&^[a. Mahā-māyā is the fractional reflection of Yoga-māyā. Kāla-māyā is the reflection of Mahā-māyā. And the illusory energy (Māyā) is the supernatural, ex­traordinary, and mystic power of Eternal Being (Brahma). Mahā-māyā, Kāla-māyā, and Māyā are also called ædi Prak&ti; and Prak&ti, the material Nature, is considered the reflection of Māyā. Thus Yoga-māyā is the origin of both Māyā and Prak&ti. Guru Nanak said: “He has created Māyā that deceives and controls us.” The word 'Māyā' also means un­real, illusory, or deceptive image of Reality. Due to the power of Māyā, one considers the universe existent and distinct from Eternal Being (Brahma). The Eternal Light (Brahma-jyoti, Noor, Yoga-māyā) is the invisible potential en­ergy; Māyā is kinetic energy, the force of action of Brahma. They are inseparable like fire and heat. Māyā is also used as a metaphor to explain the visible world to common people.

 

यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर् भवति भारत ।

अभ्युत्थानम् अधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहं ॥७॥

परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृतां ।

धर्म संस्थापनार्थाय संभवामि युगे युगे ॥८॥

 

** हे अर्जुन, जब जब संसार में धर्मकी हानी  और अधर्म की वृद्धि होती है, तब तब अच्छे लोगॊं के लिए मैं, परब्रह्म परमात्मा हर युग में अवतरित होता हूं (४.७-८)

Whenever there is a decline of Dharma (Righteousness) and a predominance of Adharma (Unrighteousness), O Arjuna, I manifest Myself. I appear from time to time for protecting the good, for transforming the wicked, and for es­tablishing world order (Dharma). (4.07-08)

            The Supreme Being is both divine and human (AV 4.16.08). Prophets appear from time to time as divine dispensation sees the need for the welfare of so­ci­ety. Whenever miscreants are born to destroy world order (Dharma), the good Lord, Vishnu, incarnates to put everything in proper balance (VR 7.08.27). His compassion is the main reason for Lord’s incarnation (SBS 49). There are other reasons besides the protection of righteousness (Dharma), for the Lord’s incarnation. The Supreme Being, which is beyond birth and death, in­car­nates in human form through a great soul on earth to satisfy the long­ings of devotees who want to see Him and be in His personal presence. Saint Tulasidasa said: Though devoid of material attributes, unattached, and immuta­ble, yet for the love of His votaries, the Lord assumes a form with at­tributes (TR 2.218.03).

            Lord performs many ordinary, human, and also uncommon or controversial pastimes just to please His devotees or to set things right. Ordinary human beings cannot understand the reasons behind these pastimes and, therefore, should not pass judgment on Lord's activities when He incarnates. Great personalities and incarnations are sometimes known to be acting contrary to the scriptural rules, just as a King has the freedom to break certain rules. These acts are done for a very good purpose and with a reason beyond human comprehension. One should neither criticize nor follow such acts.

            Saints and sages also reincarnate by the will of Krishna. Ramakrishna said that he would live in a subtle body for three hundred years in the hearts and minds of his devotees. Yogananda said: So long as people in this world are crying for help, I shall return to ply my boat and offer to take them to heavenly shores.

जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यम् एवं यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।

त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्जन्म नैति  माम् एति सोऽर्जुन ॥९॥

 

हे अर्जुअ, मेरे जन्म और कर्म दिव्य है. इसे जो मनुष्य भलीभांति जान लेता है उसका मरने के बाद पुनर्जन्म नहीं होता, तथा वह मेरे लोक, परन्धाम को प्राप्त करता है (४.९)

One who truly understands My transcendental appearance and activities of creation, maintenance, and dissolution, attains My Supreme Abode and is not born again after leaving this body, O Arjuna. (4.09)

            One develops love for Krishna by studying and listening to the transcendental birth and sportive acts of the Lord as narrated by the saints and sages in the scriptures. True understanding of the transcendental nature of Lord’s form, His incarnation, and His activities, is the Self-knowledge that leads to salvation.

वीतराग भयक्रोधा मन्मया माम् उपाश्रित्ताः ।

वहवो ज्ञानतपसा पूता मद्भावम् आगताः ॥१०॥

 

राग, भय और् क्रोध से रहित, मुख में तल्लीन, मेरे आश्रित, तथा ज्ञानरूपी तप से पवित्र होकर, बहुत से मनुष्य मेरे स्वरूप को प्रापत हो चुकेहैं (४.१०)

Many have become free from attachment, fear, anger, and at­tained salvation by taking refuge in Me, by becoming fully absorbed in My thoughts and by getting purified by the fire of Self-knowledge. (4.10)

PATH OF WORSHIP AND PRAYER

ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस् तथैव भाजाम्यहं ।

मम वार्त्मानुवर्तन्ते  मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वेशः ॥११॥

 

हे  अर्जुन, जो भक्त जिस् किसी भी मनोकामना से मेरी पूजा करते हैं, मैं उनकी मनोकामना की पूर्ति करता हूं, मनुष्य अनेक प्रकार् की इच्छाओं की पूर्ति केलिए मेरी शरण लेते हैं. (४.११)

With whatever motive people worship Me, I fulfill their desires accordingly. People worship Me with dif­ferent motives, O Arjuna. (4.11)

            Ask, and you will receive; seek, and you will find; knock, and the door will be opened to you (LUKE 11.09). It is due to divine illusion (Maya) that most people seek temporary material gains, such as health, wealth, and success, and not Self-knowledge and devotion to His lotus feet.

काङ्क्षन्तः कर्मणां सिद्धिं यजन्त इह देवताः ।

क्षिप्रं हि मनुषे लोके सिद्धिर् भवति कर्मजा ॥१२॥

 

कर्मफल के इच्छुक सम्सार के साधारण मनुष्य देवताऒं की पूजा करते हैं, क्योंकि मनुष्यलोक में कर्मफल शीघ्र ही प्राप्त होते हैं .(४.१२)

Those who long for success in their work here on earth worship the celestial controllers, Devas. Success in work comes quickly in this hu­man world. (4.12)

            No one, including all Devas, and Brahma, has his or her own power. They all derive their powers from the Supreme Being, ParaBrahma.

             Would you give to your son a stone when he asks you for bread? Your Father in heaven will give good things to those who ask Him (MATTHEW 7.09-11). When you ask for something in prayer, have faith and believe that you have received it, and it will be given to you (Mark 11.24). In prayer one asks the Lord's help in getting what one needs; in worship one adores, glorifies, and thanks Him for what one has. One should first be aware of and contemplate one's plight, feel helpless in getting out of the difficulty, then seek divine help ¾ through prayer ¾ in a state of helplessness with intense faith. Lord will take the first step if you know your plight and seek His help for transformation. Show yourself ¾ open up, confess ¾ to the Lord as you are in prayer; be specific in what you ask; and cry for His help.

            All prayers are answered, but prayers for the benefit of others are given first priority. Lord actually knows our needs at all times and is simply waiting to be asked for help due to our free will. Meditation is listening to God by stilling the mind and assuming a receptive posture in order to hear Lord's instructions, insights, and revelations. For example, embrace the attitude: Thank You for answering my prayers and for all You have given me, but now what do You want me to do with what You have given? Then, having said that, be still and alert, and just try to listen. Pray so that you can talk to God and tell Him how you are and what you have been doing. Meditate so that God can effectively tell you what you are supposed to do.

DIVISION OF LABOR IS BASED ON THE APTITUDE OF PEOPLE

चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः ।

तस्य कर्तारम अपि मां विद्धय् अकर्तारम् अव्ययं ॥१३॥

 

 ** मेरे द्वारा ही चारों वर्ण अपने-अपने गुण, स्वभाव, और रुचि के अनुसार बनाई गई है, सृष्टि की रचना आदि कर्म के कर्ता होनेपर भी मुझ परमेश्वर को अविनाशी और अकर्ता ही जानना चाहिए(क्योंकि प्रकृति के गुण ही संसार चला रहेहईं) (४.१३)

I created the four divisions of human society based on aptitude and vocation. Though I am the author of this system of division of labor, one should know that I do nothing (directly), and I am eternal. (See also 18.41) (4.13)

न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति न मे कर्मफले स्पृहा ।

इति मां योऽभिजानाति कर्मभिर् न स बध्यते ॥१४॥

 

मुझे कर्मफ्ल का बंधन नहीं लगता, क्योंकि मेरी इच्छा कर्मफल में नहिं रहती है, इस रहस्य जो व्यक्ति भलीभांति समझकर मेरा अनुसरण करता है, वह भी कर्म के बंधनों से नहीं बांधता है.

Work or Karma does not bind Me because I have no desire for the fruits of work. One who fully knows Me thus (and practices this truth) is also not bound by Karma. (4.14)

            Those who want to be first must place themselves last and be the servant of all (Mark 10.44). All works, including prayers, should be undertaken for a just cause, rather than just for personal gain.

एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैर् अपि मुमुक्षुभिः ।

कुरु कर्मेव तस्मात् त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतं ॥१५॥

 

प्राचीन काल से मुमुक्षुओं ने इस रहस्य को जानकर कर्म किए हैं, इसलिए तुम भी अपने कर्मों का पालन करो (४.१५)

The ancient seekers of salvation also performed their duties without concern for the fruits. Therefore, you should do your duty as the ancients did. (4.15)